With the holiday season just around the corner, let’s look at one of my favorite things again, chocolate. In part 1 we will cover a chocolate family across the pond and their connections.
J. S. Fry & Sons, Ltd. was a British chocolate company owned by Joseph Storrs Fry and his family. This business moved through several names and hands before ending up as J. S. Fry & Sons.
circa 1759 — Joseph Fry, a Quaker, starts making chocolate
1761 — Joseph Fry and John Vaughan purchase the chocolate business of Walter Churchman. Company named Fry, Vaughan & Co.
1777 — Chocolate works move from Newgate Street to Union Street, Bristol
1787 — Joseph Fry dies. Firm is renamed Anna Fry & Son
1795 — Joseph Storrs Fry assumes control. He patents a method of grinding cocoa beans using a Watt steam engine. As a result factory techniques are introduced into the cocoa business.
1803 — Anna Fry dies and Joseph Storrs Fry partners with a Dr. Hunt. The business is renamed Fry & Hunt
1822 — Dr. Hunt retires and Joseph Storrs Fry takes on his sons Joseph, Francis and Richard as partners: the firm is renamed J. S. Fry & Sons. The company becomes the largest commercial producer of chocolate in Britain.
1835 — Joseph Storrs Fry dies and the sons take full control.
In 1847, the Fry’s chocolate factory, located in Union Street, Bristol, England, moulded a chocolate bar suitable for widespread consumption. The firm began producing the Fry’s Chocolate Cream bar in 1866. Over 220 products were introduced in the following decades, including production of the first chocolate Easter egg in UK in 1873 and the Fry’s Turkish Delight (or Fry’s Turkish bar) in 1914. In 1896 the firm became a registered private company. It was run by the Fry family, with Joseph Storrs Fry II, grandson of the first Joseph Storrs Fry, as the chairman.
An employee of Fry’s, H.J Packer went on in 1881 to establish his own chocolate business in Bristol. At its eventual home in Greenbank, Bristol, Packer’s Chocolate would continue to provide local competition for Fry’s which would continue until 2006 under various owners and brands, from Bonds through to Famous Names and Elizabeth Shaw.
Near the start of World War I the company was one of the largest employers in Bristol. Joseph Storrs Fry II died in 1913. By 1919 the company merged with Cadbury’s chocolate and the joint company named British Cocoa and Chocolate Company. Under Egbert Cadbury the Fry’s division began the move to Somerdale, Keynsham in 1923. After 1981 the name Fry’s was no longer in use at Somerdale, but the factory was still a major producer of Cadbury’s products.
On 3 October 2007, Cadbury announced plans to close the Somerdale plant, the historic home of the Fry’s Factory, by 2010 with the loss of some 500 jobs. In an effort to maintain competitiveness in a global marketplace, production would be moved to a new factory in Poland. Another motivational factor was the high real estate value of the land. Labour MP for Wansdyke, Dan Norris said “news of the factory’s closure is a hard and heavy blow, not just to the workforce, but to the Keynsham community as a whole”.
In February 2010, following the takeover of Cadbury plc by Kraft Foods, the closure was confirmed to take place in 2011. In the longer term it is likely the brownfield site will be re-classified and provide Keynsham with additional housing.
Cecil Roderick Fry
Joan Mary Fry
Joseph Fry (tea merchant)
Joseph Fry (type-founder)
Joseph Storrs Fry
Joseph Storrs Fry II
J. S. Fry & Sons
Edward R. Pease
Lewis Fry Richardson
Anna Ruth Fry, usually known as Ruth Fry (4 September 1878 – 26 April 1962), was a British Quaker writer, pacifist and peace activist.
Ruth was born in Highgate, London, into a Quaker family – her father was Sir Edward Fry, a judge and lawyer who became known worldwide for his skilled work as a negotiator at the Hague Tribunal in 1907 – and she was educated at home. She then worked as a peace activist and a writer, serving as treasurer of the Boer Home Industries Commission during the Boer War, as general secretary of the Friends War Victims Relief Committee (a committee organized by British Quakers to provide help for refugees and victims of the First World War) from 1914 to 1924, as first chairman of the Russian Famine Relief Fund in 1921, as the secretary for the National Council for the Prevention of War in 1926-27, and as the treasurer of the London branch of the War Resisters’ International in 1936-1937.
Roger Eliot Fry (14 December 1866 – 9 September 1934) was an English artist and art critic, and a member of the Bloomsbury Group. Establishing his reputation as a scholar of the Old Masters, he became an advocate of more recent developments in French painting, to which he gave the name Post-Impressionism. He was the first figure to raise public awareness of modern art in Britain, and emphasized the formal properties of paintings over the “associated ideas” conjured in the viewer by their representational content. He was described by the art historian Kenneth Clark as “incomparably the greatest influence on taste since Ruskin… In so far as taste can be changed by one man, it was changed by Roger Fry”
Coats and Clark thread family:
“He couldn’t live without a woman.” In recent months he has been seen in the company of a widowed Frenchwoman, Nolwen de Janzé Rice. Though Lord Clark grumbles “Most of the ones I like are married already,” family intimates speculate that Mrs. Rice could well become the next Lady Clark.
snip~ NOTE* Nolwin de Janze Rice is the daughter of Alice de Janze’ (Armour family). More on Alice, Kenya and the swingers of the Happy Valley Set here:
And this Armour married a Russian princess:
Née Myra Sergueievna Koudashev, Mrs. Amour was a daughter of a first marriage of Tatar Prince Serguey Vladimirovich Kudashev, to a Russian Countess of the Nieroth family, being born in Saint Petersburg, 7 April 1895.
More on the Russian royal lines at bottom of this post
More on the Rice-Rees name here:
*NOTE* Why is Edward Snowden now in Russia?*
Fry married Camilla Grinling in 1955 (died 2000). They had two sons and two daughters and the marriage was dissolved in 1967. They lived at Widcombe Manor.Their daughter Polly claimed in 2004 that her biological father had in fact been Fry’s friend Antony Armstrong-Jones, 1st Earl of Snowdon, the husband of Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon; Fry described the claim as “utter nonsense”.
Fry died in his palace at Tamil Nadu, Madurai, India, on 18 July 2005.
Also see Snowden here:
Polly Fry is understood to have become troubled by persistent rumours that Lord Snowdon – not Jeremy Fry – was her biological father. “When you reach a certain stage in your life, you just want to know…” she once said. Sure enough, the DNA tests – using two saliva samples – are said to have revealed that Miss Fry, now Polly Higson, had been fathered by Princess Margaret’s former husband. Today Mrs Higson is 48, a married mother of five and lives in rural Somerset.
Yesterday, she confirmed the claims in the new book, but insisted that she did not want to say anything more. “It’s all rather unnerving,” she told me. Shortly before his first marriage, Lord Snowdon used to visit the Frys regularly at their home, Widcombe Manor, Bath.
The book claims that Miss Fry was conceived during a weekend when alcohol and “poppers” – amyl nitrite stimulants – had been in ready supply. “It was a pretty good free-for-all there,” said one friend, of an intimate relationship between two allegedly bisexual men and one sexually liberated wife.
Next, a FRYE on this side of the pond:
William John “Jack” Frye (March 18, 1904, Sweetwater, Oklahoma – February 3, 1959) was an aviation pioneer, who with Paul E. Richter and Walter A. Hamilton, built TWA into a world class airline during his tenure as president from 1934-1947.
Hughes was one of the most influential aviators in history: he set multiple world air speed records, built the Hughes H-1 Racer and H-4 “Hercules” (better known to history as the “Spruce Goose” aircraft), and acquired and expanded Trans World Airlines, which later merged with American Airlines. Hughes is also remembered for his eccentric behavior and reclusive lifestyle in later life, caused in part by a worsening obsessive–compulsive disorder and chronic pain. His legacy is maintained through the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.
Russian royal family info (including Nieroth family above):
Emperor Nicholas I (1796-1855)
= Princess Charlotte of Prussia (1798-1860)
+– Emperor Alexander II (1818-1881)
= Princess Marie of Hesse (1824-1880)
+– Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich (1860-1919)
= Olga Karnovitch (1866-1929) cr. Princess Paley
+– Prince Vladimir Pavlovich Paley (1897-1918)
+– Princess Irina Pavlovna Paley (1903-1990)
| = Prince Feodor Alexandrovich (1898-1968) div.
| = Count Hubert de Monbrison (1892-1982)
+– Princess Natalia Pavlovna Paley (1905-1981)
= Lucien Lelong (1889-1958) div.
= John Chapman Wilson (1889-1961)
Anna Chapman the Russian spy is here:
*More on Paley here:
Babe Paley – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Born Barbara Cushing in Boston, Massachusetts, she was the daughter of world-renowned brain surgeon Dr. Harvey Cushing, who was professor of surgery at Johns Hopkins, Harvard and Yale universities, and Katharine Stone Crowell Cushing. Her older sisters both married into money and prestige: Minnie Cushing was the second wife of Vincent Astor, and Betsey Cushing married James Roosevelt, the son of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and then later John Hay Whitney.
Spouse(s) Stanley Grafton Mortimer, Jr. (m. 1940–46)
William S. Paley (m. 1947–78)
More on Gordy/Carter here: