Obeah (sometimes spelled Obi, Obea or Obia) is a term used in the West Indies to refer to folk magic, sorcery, and religious practices derived from West African, and specifically Igbo origin Obeah is similar to other African derived religions including Palo, Vodou, Santería, rootwork, and most of all hoodoo. Obeah is practiced in Suriname, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, Dominica, Guyana, Barbados, Grenada, Belize, The Bahamas and other Caribbean countries.
Obeah is associated with both benign and malignant magic, charms, luck, and with mysticism in general. In some Caribbean nations, Obeah refers to folk religions of the African diaspora. In some cases, aspects of these folk religions have survived through syncretism with Christian symbolism and practice introduced by European colonials and slave owners. Casual observation may conclude that Christian symbolism is incorporated into Obeah worship, but in fact may represent clandestine worship and religious protest.
In parts of the Caribbean where Obeah existed, slaves were taken from a variety of African nations with differing spiritual practices and religions. It is from these arrivals and their spiritualisms that Obeah originates. The theory of origin that is most accepted and is supported by the W. E. B. Du Bois Institute database traces obeah to the dibia or obia (Igbo: doctoring) traditions of the Igbo people, Specialists in Obia (also spelled Obea) were known as Ndi Obia (Igbo: Obia people) and practised the same activities as the obeah men and women of the Caribbean like predicting the future and manufacturing charms.. Among the Igbo there were oracles known as ọbiạ which were said to be able to talk.Parts of the Caribbean where Obeah was most active imported a large number of its slaves from the Igbo dominated Bight of Biafra. In another theory, the Efik language is the root of obeah where the word obeah comes from the Efik ubio meaning ‘a bad omen’. The last theory of the origin of Obeah lies with the Ashanti who called their priests (or Obayifoɔ) practices Obayie(Akan: witchcraft). There is also evidence of Akan names among Obeah men of the Caribbean in the 17th and 18th centuries. The Akan origin of Obeah has been criticised by several writers with an Igbo origin thought to be more likely.However, in colonies where Bight of Biafra slaves were less represented and Akan were plenty (Suriname and Guyana), Obeah is thought to be more of a mixture of Akan beliefs.
Obeah came to mean any physical object, such as a talisman or charm, that was used for evil magical purposes. Obeah incorporated various beliefs from the religions of later migrants to the colonies it was present. Obeah also influenced other religions in the Caribbean, e.g. Christianity which incorporated some Obeah beliefs…
A continuing source of white anxiety related to Obeah was the belief that practitioners were skilled in using poisons, as mentioned in Matthew Lewis‘s Journal of a West India Proprietor. An anti-Obeah law passed in Barbados in 1818 specifically forbade the possession of “any poison, or any noxious or destructive substance”A doctor who examined the medicine chest of an Obeah man arrested in Jamaica in 1866 identified white arsenic as one of the powders in it, but could not identify the others. The unnamed correspondent reporting this affirmed “The Jamaica herbal is an extensive one, and comprises some highly poisonous juices, of which the Obeah men have a perfect knowledge.”…
Desirée Glapion Rogers (born June 16, 1959, in New Orleans, Louisiana) is an American business executive who is the Chief Executive Officer of Johnson Publishing Company. In November 2008 she was selected by Barack Obama‘s office as the White House Social Secretary for the incoming administration, the first person of African-Americandescent to serve in this function. On February 26, 2010, the Chicago Sun-Times′ Lynn Sweet reported that she planned to step down. Rogers was replaced by Julianna Smoot, former chief of staff to the U.S. Trade Representative Ron Kirk. Smoot was the Obama presidential campaign chief fund-raiser. On August 10, 2010, Rogers was named CEO of Johnson Publishing Company.
Rogers was born on June 16, 1959 in New Orleans, Louisiana. She is the daughter of the late Roy Glapion and his wife Joyce. Her father was the former director of sports for the New Orleans Public Schools and a member of the New Orleans City Council. Her mother ran day-care centers. She has one brother, Roy A. Glapion, a businessman who is active in civic life in New Orleans. Rogers is a descendant of Voudou priestess Marie Laveau Glapion. Rogers graduated from the Academy of the Sacred Heart in New Orleans in 1977. She earned aBachelor’s degree in political science from Wellesley College in 1981. Rogers earned a MBA from Harvard Business School in 1985. After graduate school, Rogers married John W. Rogers, Jr. and moved to Chicago, Illinois, where she began her career. They have one daughter together. They are divorced.Rogers was named twice as queen of the Zulu Social Aid and Pleasure Club, a Mardi Gras krewe dating back to 1916. She was first queen in 1988. Her father was instrumental in leading the krewe from a dwindling band of fewer than 100 black men in the early 1970s to a robust, financially healthy and racially integrated krewe by the 1990s. Glapion served variously as finance chairman, president and chairman of the Zulu board. In 2000 Rogers reprised the reign in honor of her father, who died in 1999. Rogers’ mother, Joyce Glapion, now retired, was also active in Carnival. Rogers is an Obama family friend. Her former husband, also Obama’s Inaugural Co-Chair, is a former teammate of Michelle Obama‘s brother Craig Robinson on the Princeton University basketball team. Rogers’ brother and mother still live in New Orleans..
*NOTE* Ellen went to George Soros’ recent wedding:
*NOTE* JOHNSON above and here*:
Due to the effects of migration and the Atlantic slave trade, there are descendant ethnic Igbo populations in countries such as Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea as well as outside Africa. Their exact population outside Africa is unknown, but today many African Americans and Afro Caribbeans are of Igbo descent….
The Kingdom of Nri was a religio-polity, a sort of theocratic state, that developed in the central heartland of the Igbo region. The Nri had seven types of taboos which included human (such as the birth of twins), animal (such as killing or eating of pythons),object, temporal, behavioral, speech and place taboos….
Although title holders were respected because of their accomplishments and capabilities, they were never revered as kings, but often performed special functions given to them by such assemblies. This way of governing was immensely different from most other communities of Western Africa, and only shared by the Ewe of Ghana. Umunna are a form of patrilineage maintained by the Igbo. Law starts with the Umunna which is a male line of descent from a founding ancestor (who the line is sometimes named after) with groups of compounds containing closely related families headed by the eldest male member. The Umunna can be seen as the most important pillar of Igbo society…
For still unknown reasons, Igbo women were highly sought after….
Contrary to common belief, European slave traders were fairly informed about various African ethnicities, leading to slavers’ targeting certain ethnic groups which plantation owners preferred. Ethnic groups consequently became fairly saturated in certain parts of the Americas The Igbo were dispersed to colonies such as Jamaica Cuba, Haiti Barbados, the United States Belize and Trinidad and Tobago, among others…
Elements of Igbo culture can still be found in these places. For example, in Jamaican Patois the Igbo word unu, meaning “you” plural, is still used. “Red Ibo” (or “red eboe”) describes a black person with fair or “yellowish” skin. This term had originated from the reported prevalence of these skin tones among the Igbo but eastern Nigerian influences may not be strictly Igbo.The word Bim, a colloquial term for Barbados, was commonly used among enslaved Barbadians (Bajans). This word is said to have derived from bi mu in the Igbo language (or bem, Ndi bem, Nwanyi ibem or Nwoke ibem, which means “My people”), but may have other origins (see: Barbados etymology). A section ofBelize City was named Eboe Town after its Igbo inhabitants.In the United States the Igbo were found most commonly in the states of Maryland and Virginia, where they remained the largest single group of Africans, Recent Igbo-speaking immigrants have also settled in Maryland, attracted to its strong professional job market…
Paul Robeson’s son was educated in Mosow per his FBI files. Paul Robeson was here:
When African nations gained independence from colonialism, the Soviet Union offered scholarships to young people from these nations. About 400,000 Africans studied in the former Soviet Union between the late 1950s and 1990. The first significant arrival of Africans was for the 6th World Festival of Youth and Studentsheld in Moscow in 1957. Many Africans also attended the Patrice Lumumba University. Hence colloquial terms for Afro-Russians born in the 1950s and 1960s are “Children of the Festival” (ru) or “Children of Lumumba”. Some of these children subsequently returned to their African parents’ countries or moved on to Western Europe or in the case of Jewish Afro-Russians to Israel.
And here. PAul Robeson visited this camp in 1958:
Roman Obama also went to Patrice Lumumba University*NOTE*
Thursday, February 13, 1992
MOSCOW – For nearly a decade, Roman Obama’s life at Patrice Lumumba University was almost paradise. He studied for free and got warm clothes and cheap airline tickets that let him see the world.
“We had so many possibilities. Maybe it was not a luxurious life, but we could travel and do things,” said Obama, 31, a law student from Equatorial Guinea.
The former Soviet Union spent huge sums of money over the past few decades to educate tens of thousands of foreign students – mainly from the developing world – in the name of “peoples’ friendship.”
Young people from Asia, Africa, and Latin America studied medicine, agronomy, law and Marxist economics.
For those students, the place to be was Patrice Lumumba, founded by Nikita Khrushchev in the early 1960s when dozens of Latin American, Asian and African countries won independence.
Now Lumumba’s dorms are crumbling. The Russian government and the university have little money. Once a Soviet showcase, the university and its students are now a burden.
In Obama’s building, the elevator lights do not work, the garbage chute is clogged and heating is a problem. Named for a Zairean revolutionary, Lumumba was considered in the West to be a ideological training ground for future cadres in Soviet-backed regimes such as Ethiopia, Nicaragua and Vietnam.
As the collapse of communism became more apparent, Obama revised his thesis to address the problems of cooperation between the International Monetary Fund and Africa. He hopes to work in private practice or for his country’s government.
Sitting on his bed, which takes up most of his dorm room on the 13th floor of a deteriorating high-rise, Obama wonders how he will survive his last semester.
His scholarship of 137 rubles a month is now worth about $1.37. He has no money to pay for the airline ticket that would cost 215,000 rubles to return home to Equatorial Guinea.
Obama’s room is more cramped than usual. His countryman Luis Alonso, who was studying in the Ukrainian city of Odessa, managed to buy a plane ticket at the old price and is headed home. But hotels cost too much, so Alonso is camping out with Obama until he gets an exit visa.
“It’s impossible for us to study. The universities have no money and our government has no money. We are hostages,” said another countryman, Enrique Edu, 29, a law student at Baku University in Azerbaijan.
Edu came to Moscow to plead for help for his wife, their child and about 150 other students from Equatorial Guinea in the former Soviet Union.
Baku University no longer gives foreign students any money and wants foreign students to pay a dollar a day for their dorm rooms, Edu said. He still gets his former Soviet stipend of 150 rubles ($1.50) but is not sure how long even that small sum will continue.
Paul Robeson’s mother/ *Robinson:
A series of ethnic clashes between Northern Muslims and the Igbo, Ibibio, Efik and other ethnic groups of Eastern Nigeria Region living in Northern Nigeria took place between 1966 and 1967. Elements in the army had assassinated the Nigerian military head of state General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi (29 July 1966) and peace negotiations between the military government that deposed Ironsi and the regional government of Eastern Nigeria at the Aburi Talks in Ghana in 1967 failed. These events led to a regional council of the peoples of Eastern Nigeria deciding that the region should secede and proclaim the Republic of Biafra on May 30, 1967. General Emeka Odumegwu-Ojukwu made this declaration and became the Head of state of the new republic. The resultant war, which became known as theNigerian Civil War or the Nigerian-Biafran War, lasted from July 6, 1967 until January 15, 1970, after which the federal government re-absorbed Biafra into Nigeria….
The post-war era saw the changing of names of both people and places to non-Igbo sounding words such as the changing of the name of the town of Igbuzo to the Anglicized Ibusa. Due to the discrimination, many Igbo had trouble finding employment, and the Igbo became one of the poorest ethnic groups in Nigeria during the early 1970s. Igboland was gradually rebuilt over a period of twenty years and the economy was again prospering due to the rise of the petroleum industry in the adjacent Niger Delta region. This led to new factories being set up in southern Nigeria. Many Igbo people eventually took government positions, although many were engaged in private business and constituted and still constitute the bulk of Nigerian informal economy. Recently, there has been a wave of Igbo immigration to other African countries, Europe, and theAmericas…
The Igbo language was used by John Goldsmith as an example to justify deviating from the classical linear model ofphonology as laid out in The Sound Pattern of English. It is written in the Roman script as well as the Nsibidi formalizedideograms which is used by the Ekpe society and Okonko fraternity, but is no longer widely used. Nsibidi ideography existed among the Igbo before the 16th century, but died out after it became popular among secret societies, who then made Nsibidi a secret form of communication….
The Igbo believe in reincarnation. People are believed to reincarnate into families that they were part of while alive. Before a relative dies, it is said that the soon to be deceased relative sometimes give clues of who they will reincarnate as in the family. Once a child is born, he or she is believed to give signs of who they have reincarnated from. This can be through behavior, physical traits and statements by the child. A diviner can help in detecting who the child has reincarnated from. It is considered an insult if a male is said to have reincarnated as a female…
Igbo people have moved to both Nigerian cities such as Lagos and Abuja, and other countries such as Gabon, Canada, the United Kingdomand the United States. Prominent Igbo communities outside Africa include those of London in the United Kingdom andHouston, Baltimore, Chicago, Detroit, Atlanta, and Washington, D.C. in the United States….
In 1978 after Olusegun Obasanjo‘s military regime lifted the ban on independent political activity, the Ohaneze Ndi Igbo organization was formed, an elite umbrella organization which speaks on behalf of the Igbo people…
n an interview with BBC News in January 2008, Odinga asserted that he was the first cousin of U.S. president Barack Obama through Obama’s father. However, Barack Obama’s paternal uncle denied any direct relation to Odinga, stating “Odinga’s mother came from this area, so it is normal for us to talk about cousins. But he is not a blood relative.” Obama’s father came from the same Luo community as Odinga.
Eslanda Cardozo Goode was born in Washington, DC on December 15, 1895, mostly descended from Black slaves. Her paternal great-grandfather was a Sephardic Jew whose family was expelled from Spain in the 17th century. Her grandfather was Francis Lewis Cardozo, the first Black treasurer of South Carolina. Her father, John Goode, was a law clerk in the War Department who later finished his law degree at Howard University. Eslanda had two older brothers, John Jr. and Francis. She attended the University of Illinois and later graduated from Columbia University in New York with a B. S. degree in chemistry. When then she started to work at New York-Presbyterian Hospital, she soon became the head histological chemist of Surgical Pathology, the first Black to hold such a position. In 1920, Paul Robeson and Eslanda attended summer school at Columbia. One year later they married. Eslanda gave up her intentions to study medicine and supported her husband as his business manager. Eslanda worked at the hospital until 1925, when the career of her husband took more and more of her time. She spent time between Harlem, London and France in the following years.
The only child of the Robesons, Paul Jr, “Pauli” was born on November 2, 1927; Robeson was on a tour in Europe at that time. The marriage was strained and Eslanda suffered under the affairs of her husband that reportedly started with a relationship with Freda Diamond in 1925. Other affairs affecting their relationship were those with actresses Fredi Washington and Peggy Ashcroft Robeson’s long-term liaison with Yolanda Jackson almost broke up the marriage, and Eslanda even agreed to a divorce at a time. Yet despite all the setbacks and separations, the marriage endured, as each of the two had needs that only the other could fill. Eslanda chose to “rise above Paul’s affairs”, but to stay married to him and pursue her own career…
*NOTE* Yolanda Olive JACKSON*
WHAT DO FRANK MARSHALL DAVIS AND PAUL ROBESON AND LOUIS BOUDIN AND BILL AYERS HAVE IN COMMON?
A MULTI-GENERATIONAL COMMITMENT TO THE SOCIALIST TAKEOVER OF THE USA. AND BARACK HUSSIEN OBAMA JUNIOR!
- LEONARD BOUDIN (WHOSE FATHER WAS COMMIE LOUIS BOUDIN )WAS ROBESON’S LAWYER, (AND AL HISS’S LAWYER, TOO). (HIS BROTHER IN LAW WAS KGB AGENT I. F. STONE.)
- BOUDIN’S GRANDDAUGHTER WAS ADOPTED BY BILL AND BERNADINE AYERS.
- FRANK MARSHALL DAVIS MOVED TO HAWAII BECAUSE HIS CLOSE PERSONAL FRIEND AND FELLOW STALINIST PAUL ROBESON SUGGESTED IT.
- BILL AYERS GHOST-WROTE OBAMA’S MEMOIR AND HOSTED OBAMA’S VERY FIRST FUNDRAISER. AND BILL AND HIS FATHER TOM GOT OBAMA A BIG GIG AT AN EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATION IN CHICAGO.
- BILL’S FATHER TOM ALSO UNDERWROTE LEFTIST ORGANIZATIONS THAT EMPLOYED VALERIE JARRETT’S MOTHER.
IT’S ONE BIG HAPPY FAMILY. RED FAMILY. A RED NETWORK.
OBAMA WAS A RED DIAPER BABY LIKE BILL AYERS AND VALERIE JARRETT AND DAVID HOROWITZ AND ME.
BUT OBAMA’S REDS WERE ALSO EXTREMELY WELL CONNECTED TO THE CHICAGO MACHINE.
AND EXTREMELY WELL-CONNECTED TO THE NATION OF ISLAM – WHICH WAS HQ’D IN CHICAGO.
BECAUSE THE EARLIEST KNOWN CONNECTION BETWEEN ANYONE IN THE DUNHAM FAMILY AND CHICAGO WAS FRANK MARSHALL DAVIS, IT’S SEEMS LOGICAL TO ME TO FOCUS ON FMD.
AND BECAUSE BARACK JUNIOR WROTE A POEM ABOUT FMD AND CALLED IT “POP”, IT SEEMS LOGICAL TO ME TO SPECULATE THAT FMD WADS OBAMA’S FATHER.
IT EXPLAINS WHY FMD WOULD REACH OUT FOR YOUNG BARRY – AND WHY EVERYONE ELSE WOULD, TOO.