Baku (Azerbaijani: Bakı, IPA: [bɑˈcɯ]) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region. Baku is located 28 meters below sea level, which makes it the lowest lying national capital in the world. Baku is also the largest city in the world located below sea level. It is located on the southern shore of the Absheron Peninsula, which projects into the Caspian Sea. The city consists of two principal parts: the downtown and the old Inner City (21.5 ha). Baku’s urban population at the beginning of 2009 was estimated at just over two million people.Officially, about 25 percent of all inhabitants of the country live in the metropolitan city area of Baku.
Baku is divided into eleven administrative districts (raions) and 48 townships. Among these are the townships on islands in the Baku Bay and the town of Oil Rocks built on stilts in the Caspian Sea, 60 km (37 mi) away from Baku. The Inner City of Baku along with the Shirvanshah’s Palace and Maiden Tower were inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2000. According to the Lonely Planet’s ranking, Baku is also among the world’s top ten destinations for urban nightlife.
The city is the scientific, cultural and industrial center of Azerbaijan. Many sizeable Azerbaijani institutions have their headquarters there, including SOCAR, one of the world’s top 100 companies and others.The Baku International Sea Trade Port, sheltered by the islands of the Baku Archipelago to the east and the Absheron Peninsula to the north, is capable of handling two million tons of general and dry bulk cargoes per year.Baku hosted the 57th Eurovision Song Contest in 2012 and will host the 2015 European Games.
The first oil well was mechanically drilled in the Bibi-Heybat suburb of Baku in 1846, though a number of hand-dug wells predate it. Large-scale oil exploration started in 1872, when Russian imperial authorities auctioned the parcels of oil-rich land around Baku to private investors. Within a short period of time Swiss, British, French, Belgian, German, Swedish and American investors appeared in Baku. Among them were the firms of the Nobel brothers together with the family von Börtzell-Szuch (Carl Knut Börtzell, who also owned the Livadia Palace) and the Rothschild family. An industrial oil belt, better known as Black City, was established near Baku. By the beginning of the 20th century almost half of world production was being extracted in Baku.
The Nobel Brothers’ oil wells in Balakhani, a suburb of Baku, in the late 19th century.
The Petroleum Production Company Nobel Brothers, Limited, or Branobel (short for братьев Нобель “brat’yev Nobel”—cable communications meaning Nobel Brothers in Russian), was an oil company set up by Ludvig Nobel and Baron Peter von Bilderling, in Baku, Azerbaijan. Originally established by Robert Nobel (who contributed 25,000 rubles) and the investments of barons Peter von Bilderling (300,000 rubles) and Standertskjöld (150,000 rubles) as a distillery in 1876, it became, during the late 19th century, one of the largest oil companies in the world.
The Nobel Brothers Petroleum Company was an oil-producing company that had its origins in a distillery, founded by Robert and Ludvig Nobel in Baku in 1876, which, in 1879, turned into a shareholding company headquartered in St. Petersburg. The share capital of three million rubles was divided as follows : 53,7% Ludwig Nobel, 31,0% Baron Peter von Bilderling, 4,7% I.J. Zabelskiv, 3,8% Alfred Nobel, 3,3% Robert Nobel, 1,7% au Baron Alexandre von Bilderling. Pipeline transport was pioneered near Baku by Vladimir Shukhov and the Branobel company in 1878-1880. On 10 April 1902, the company signed a contract for the purchase of oil fields in Romany,[disambiguation needed] which were owned by the oil producer Isabey Hajinsky. On 17 October 1905, in accordance with the Committee of Ministers, the company purchased the oil fields owned by oil producer A. Adamov. The company’s fixed capital in 1914–1917 was 30 million rubles. By 1916, it was the largest oil company in Russia, producing 76 million poods of oil.
In 1912, was founded, in London, the Russian General Oil Corporation, which was established as an English holding company and gathered some of the most important Russian and foreign banks, united 20 companies. These included A.I. Mantashev & Co., G.M. Lianozov Sons, Moscow-Caucasus Trade Company, Caspian Partnership, Russian Petroleum Society, Absheron Petroleum Society and others. By 1914, the fixed capital in oil was more than 120 million rubles and the Russian General Oil Corporation, buying a considerable amount of shares in the Berlin Exchange, attempted to take control over Branobel. The move was a failure and by 1916 Emanuel Nobel had bought not only a considerable share in the Russian general Oil Corporation, but also established control over other oil businesses in the region, such as Volga-Baku Company, A.I. Mantashev & Co., the Anglo-Russian Maximov Oil Company in London and G.M. Lianozov Sons, of which he personally owned a third of the shares.
About 12% of the money left to establish the Nobel Prizes by Alfred Nobel came from his shares in the company; he was its largest individual investor.
Robert Hjalmar Nobel (1829–1896) was the oldest son of Immanuel Nobel and his wife Caroline Andrietta Ahlsell, brother of Ludvig and Alfred Nobel.
He was working for his brother Ludvig when he bought an interest in an oil refinery in Baku, Azerbaijan in 1876. He and his brother started Branobel, which was an important early oil company that controlled a large amount of Russian output.
The Nobel family is a prominent Swedish family closely related to the history both of Sweden and of Russia in the 19th and 20th centuries. Its legacy includes its outstanding contributions to philanthropy and to the development of the armament industry and of the oil industry. Some of its foremost members are Immanuel Nobel, the younger, engineer developer of underwater naval mines and inventor of the rotary lathe used to produce plywood, Ludvig Nobel, the founder of Branobel and one of the richest and most important men in Russia at his time, and Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite who left the major part of his estate to the creation of the Nobel Prizes.
The Nobel family originated from the village of Östra Nöbbelöv in Scania hence the name. The first member was Petrus Olai Nobelius (1655–1707) who married Wendela Rudbeck (1668–1710), daughter of the famous Swedish scientist Olaus Rudbeck the Elder, also known as Olof Rudbeck.
Members of the Nobel family are known not only for their interest in art but also for their inventive ability, which is sometimes referred to as a Rudbeckian trait, inherited from their ancestor Olaus Rudbeck, the elder.Immanuel Nobel pioneered the development of underwater mines, designed some of the first steam engines to power Russian ships, installed the first central heating systems in Russian homes and was the first to develop modern plywood (cut with a rotary lathe). One of his sons, Ludvig Nobel, was the founder of The Machine-Building Factory Ludvig Nobel, a great armaments concern and the inventor of the Nobel wheel. Ludvig was also the founder of Branobel, the foremost Russian oil industry of its time, and launched the world’s first diesel-driven tugs and tankers, besides building the first European pipeline. Alfred Nobel, who died childless, was the inventor of dynamite and the founder of the Nobel Prizes, to the creation of which he left the bulk of his estate.
The Nobel Family Society, which is not to be confused with the Nobel Foundation, is a private society of which only the descendants of Immanuel Nobel, the younger, are eligible as members. The Nobel family is also represented in the Nobel Prizes Award Ceremony, held in Stockholm every year. In 2007, the Nobel family archives kept in the Archives of Lund were inscribed in UNESCO’s Memory of the World Register.
Olof Nobelius (1706–1760), artist, (m.1750) Ana Christina Wallin (1718–1787) Immanuel Nobel, the Elder (1757–1839), physician, (m.1st.) Anna Kristina Rosell (1760–1795), (m.2nd.) Brita Catharina Ahlberg(1770–1823) Immanuel Nobel, the younger (1801–1872)(m.1828) Andriette Ahlsell (1803–1889)
Descendants of Immanuel Nobel, the younger:
Robert Nobel, (1829–1896), pioneer of the Russian oil industry (m.1860) Pauline Lenngrén (1840–1918)
Ludvig Nobel, (1831–1888), founder of Branobel and its first president, (m.1st.1858) Mina Ahlsell (1832–1869), (m. 2nd. 1871) Edla Constantia Collin Nobel (1848–1921)
Alfred Nobel, (1833–1896), the inventor of dynamite, instituted the Nobel Prizes
Emil Oskar Nobel, (1843–1864)
Descendants of Robert and Pauline Nobel:
Hjalmar Immanuel Nobel (1863–1956) (m.1923) Countess Anna Sofia Posse (1895–1975)
Countess Ingeborg Sofia (1865–1939) (m.1894) Count Carl von Frischen Ridderstolpe (1864–1905)
Ludvig Emanuel Nobel (1868–1946) (m.1895) Valborg Wettergrund (1869–1940)
Descendants of Ludvig and Mina Nobel:
Emanuel Nobel, (1859–1932), Branobel’s second president
Carl Nobel, (1862–1893) (m.) Mary Landzert (1865–1928) Andriette Nobel-Tydén (1890–1976) (m.1912) Eberhard Tydén (1885–1968)
Mimmi Nobel-Högman (1891–1938) (m.1st.1914) Gustav Högman (1888–1947) Ulla Mary Elisabeth (b. 1916) (m.1939) Baron Sigvard Gustaf Beck-Friis (b. 1913) Baroness Christina Mary Cecilia (b. 1943) (m.1968) Baron Jean-Claude Pierre Ferdinand Gunther Andre Lanauve de Tartas (b. 1945) Alexandra Ulla Lanauve de Tartas (b. 1970)
Baron Joachim Beck-Friis (b. 1946)
Baroness Elisabeth Ulla Alice (b. 1950) (m.1986) Baron Erik Ottoson Thott (b. 1954)
Tom Åke Emanuel Högman (1922–1991)
Anna Nobel Sjögren (1866–1935)
Descendants of Ludvig and Edla Nobel:
Esther Wilhelmina (Mina) Olsen-Nobel, (1873–1929) Alf Igor Nobel, (1898–1968) (m. 1921) Esther Mathilda Johnsen (1898–1978) Hans Emanuel Nobel (b. 1922)
Edla (Lisle) Nordenfelt (b. 1923)
Claes Nobel, (b. 1930)
Edla Nobel Claret de Fleurieu (1899–1996)(m.1st. 1920) Roger Daudy (1889–1933)(m.2nd. 1934) Count Médéric Claret de Fleurieu (1893–1968) Countess Irline Aglaé Marie Nadine (b. 1935) (m.1956) Count Henri Lombard de Buffières de Rambuteau (1925–1991) Jean-Marie de Buffières de Rambuteau (b. 1957)
Marie Edla de Buffières de Rambuteau (b. 1958)
Claude de Buffières de Rambuteau (b. 1959)(m.1991) Diane Claret de Fleurieu (b. 1961) Astrid de Buffières de Rambuteau (b. 1991)
Mathilde de Buffières de Rambuteau (b. 1993)
Cécile de Buffières de Rambuteau (b. 1995)
Philibert de Buffières de Rambuteau (b. 1966)
Charles de Buffières de Rambuteau (b. 1968)
Count Patrick Camille Alfred Claret de Fleurieu (b. 1938) (m.1967) Anne Viguier (b. 1941) Sylvie Claret de Fleurieu (b. 1968)
Médéric Claret de Fleurieu (b. 1969)
Sabine Claret de Fleurieu (b. 1971)
Leif Jurij Nobel (1901–1938)(m.1930) Anna Elisabeth Mellén (1905–2003) Peter Nobel, (b. 1931)
Eva Nobel, (b. 1935)
Ludvig Alfred (Lullu) Nobel, (1874–1935)(m.1901) Mary (Minnie) Johnson (1876-1953) Mary Lorna Nobel (1902-1911)
Manuel Ludvig Nobel (1904-1911)
Emanuel Percy Ludvig Alexis Nobel (1913-1987) Philip Nobel (b. 1970)(m.2007) Chantal Nobel née Cordilhac (b. 1962) Chloé Nobel (b. 2001)
Ingrid Hildegard Nobel-Ahlqvist, (1879–1929)
Marta Helena Nobel-Oleinikoff, (1881–1973) (m. 1905) Georgij Pavlovitj Oleinikoff (1864–1937) Nils Nobel-Oleinikoff (1905–1990), last President of Branobel (m.1st 1933) Herta Frieda ter Meer (1911–1939), (m.2nd. 1943) Dora Ahlqvist (1906–1985) Peter Nobel-Oleinikoff (b. 1937) (m. 1998) Anna von Holstein (b. 1943)
Nils Nobel-Oleinikoff (b. 1944) (m. 1968) Monique de Lamare-Singery, (1947–1995) Christianne Oleinikoff (b. 1970) m.(2006) Bruno Ferraz-Coutinho (b. 1972)
Sven Nobel(-Oleinikoff) Michael Nobel(-Oleinikoff)
Rolf Nobel, (1882–1947)
Emil Waldemar Ludvig Nobel, (1885–1951)
Gustaf Oscar Ludvig (Gösta) Nobel, (1886–1951)
And oil again, but in Oklahoma:
Samuel Lloyd Noble, known as Lloyd Noble (30 November 1896, Ardmore, Oklahoma – 14 February 1950, Houston, Texas), was an oilman and philanthropist, founder of the Noble Corporation and the The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation.He attended Southeastern Normal College in Durant, Oklahoma and the University of Oklahoma.Lloyd Noble’s life has made a long-term difference to people in Oklahoma, where he is recognized as one of the fifty most influential Oklahomans of the 20th century.But, his achievements have had an impact worldwide. Noble was raised in a family of hardware merchants, whose store was built in Ardmore, Oklahoma, then a part of the Chickasaw Indian Territory.As a young man, Noble attended college in Durant, Oklahoma, earning a teaching certificate. He then taught school, but quit to attend college at the University of Oklahoma. His pursuit of higher education was cut short when he quit to help his ailing father with the family business. After his father died, he enlisted in the U. S. Navy in 1918, and was discharged the following year after the armistice was signed that ended World War I.
Lloyd Noble began his career in the early years of oil drilling in the state, founding the Noble Drilling Company on April 1, 1921.The company began using Hughes Simplex rock bits created by the Hughes Tool Company in the 1920s and was noted for adopting new technologies, a company trait inherited from its founder, known for his interests in and use of aviation, geoscience and other emerging developments of the century. Monies made in the oil drilling business funded the creation of the Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, a charitable organization charged with undertaking philanthropy and advancing agricultural practices and science.