Szendro, Hungary

©Renee 2012

Szendro is a place in Hungary. Szend is a family name as well. We can travel there from here on holiday. What a beautiful adventure.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Szendr%C5%91

Szendrő is a small town in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, Northern Hungary, 40 kilometers from county capital Miskolc.

Szendrő was first mentioned in 1317. It was named after its owner Szend. Odly enough, Szendro is a Hungarian last name. The first stone-built castle of the county was built here, and it was an important border fortress during the Turkish occupation of Hungary, but Prince Francis II Rákóczi had it destroyed in 1707.

Szendrő was capital of the comitatus between 1613 and 1660, and centre of the Szendrő district between 1615 and 1930. The railway line of the Bódva valley (built in 1896) strengthened its role as a market town.

Szendrő got town status in 1996.

 

The official site of the town

http://www2.thesetonfamily.com:8080/peerage/The_Arbroath_Declaration.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abdy_baronets

http://www.geni.com/people/Sir-Valentine-Robert-Duff-Abdy-6th-Baronet-of-Albyns/6000000005693609008

Advertisements
This entry was posted in Famous People, Faraway Places and Travel, Uncategorized. Bookmark the permalink.

40 Responses to Szendro, Hungary

  1. Renee says:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sir_Anthony_Abdy,_5th_Baronet

    He was the eldest son of Sir William Abdy, 4th Baronet and his wife Mary Stotherd, daughter of Philip Stotherd. Abdy was educated at Felsted School and went then to St John’s College, Cambridge. In 1750, he succeeded his father as baronet and in 1759, he also inherited the estates of Sir John Abdy, 4th Baronet, the great-grandchild of the brother of his great-grandfather.

    Abdy was admitted to Lincoln’s Inn in 1738 and was called to the Bar after six years.He managed the estates of Sackville Tufton, 7th Earl of Thanet and was adviser to Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington. In 1758, he became a bencher and in 1765 he was appointed a King’s Counsel.

    When in 1763 Sir Henry Slingsby, 5th Baronet died, Abdy with the support of William Cavendish, 4th Duke of Devonshire, Burlington’s son-in-law,stood as Member of Parliament (MP) for Knaresborough, a seat he held until his death in 1775.

    On 13 August 1747, he married Catherine Hamilton, youngest daughter of William Hamilton in St Paul’s Cathedral in London.Their marriage was childless and Abdy was succeeded in the baronetcy by his younger brother William.Having had suffered from the gout in his last years, he died on it in 1775.

    *NOTE*
    Hamilton *

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sir_Thomas_Abdy,_1st_Baronet,_of_Albyns

    He was the only son of Captain Anthony Abdy, a maternal greatgrandson of Sir William Abdy, 4th Baronet, and his wife Grace Rich, daughter of Sir Thomas Rich, 5th Baronet.Abdy was educated at Winchester Cathedral in Hampshire and at St John’s College, Cambridge, where he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in 1833. He was then admitted to the Middle Temple.
    In 1841, Abdy contested Maldon unsuccessfully. He gained the seat for Lyme Regis in 1847 and represented the constituency as Member of Parliament until 1852. On 22 December 1849, Abdy was created a baronet, of Albyns, in the County of Essex, and in 1875, he was appointed High Sheriff of Essex. Abdy was Deputy Lieutenant and Justice of Peace.

    On 19 October 1841, he married Hariot Alston, second daughter of Rowland Alston.They had five children, a daughter and four sons. Abdy died aged 66 and was succeeded in the baronetcy successively by his sons William, Anthony and Henry.

    *NOTE*

    Rich*

  2. Renee says:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sir_William_Abdy,_7th_Baronet
    Born in Marylebone, he was the only son of Sir William Abdy, 6th Baronet and his wife Mary Gordon, daughter of James Gordon.In 1803, he succeeded his father as baronet.Abdy was educated at Eton College and Christ Church College, Oxford, where he matriculated in 1796.

    He served in the British Army and was promoted to lieutenant of the South Essex Militia in 1798. Later he was second lieutenant of the Southwark Volunteers. In 1817, Abdy entered the British House of Commons, representing Malmesbury until the following year.

    yOn 3 July 1806, he married Lady Anne Wellesley, eldest and illegitime born, later legitimitated, daughter of Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley at Hyde Park Corner.At some point during their marriage, she became lover of Lord Charles Bentinck and as result Abdy and his wife were divorced in 1816.He never remarried and died aged 89, without legitimate issue, at Hill Street, London. With his death the baronetcy became extinct.

    *NOTE*
    Gordon*

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sir_Robert_Abdy,_3rd_Baronet

  3. Renee says:

    http://thepeerage.com/p57.htm
    Harriot Altham1
    F, #561

    Harriot Altham||p57.htm#i561|Peyton Altham||p57.htm#i562||||||||||||||||

    Last Edited=16 Jan 2011
    Harriot Altham is the daughter of Peyton Altham.1 She and Reverend Stotherd Abdy obtained a marriage license on 31 July 1759.1
    From 31 July 1759, her married name became Abdy.1
    Citations
    [S8] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition, 2 volumes (Crans, Switzerland: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 1999), volume 1, page 1. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition.
    Peyton Altham1
    M, #562

    Last Edited=5 Apr 2003
    Peyton Altham lived at Mark Hall, Essex, England.1
    Child of Peyton Altham
    Harriot Altham1
    Citations
    [S8] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition, 2 volumes (Crans, Switzerland: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 1999), volume 1, page 1. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition.
    Catherine Mary Abdy1
    F, #563, b. 27 December 1776

    Catherine Mary Abdy|b. 27 Dec 1776|p57.htm#i563|Captain Sir William Abdy, 6th Bt.|b. c 1732\nd. 21 Jul 1803|p48.htm#i474|Mary Brebner-Gordon|d. 4 Mar 1829|p48.htm#i475|Sir William Abdy, 4th Bt.|b. 1 Sep 1689\nd. 18 Jan 1749/50|p47.htm#i468|Mary Stotherd|d. 6 Apr 1743|p47.htm#i469|James Brebner-Gordon||p48.htm#i476|Anne Lavington||p48.htm#i477|

    Last Edited=17 Jan 2011
    Catherine Mary Abdy was baptised on 27 December 1776.1 She was the daughter of Captain Sir William Abdy, 6th Bt. and Mary Brebner-Gordon.1 She married Captain Thomas Fellowes.1
    Her married name became Fellowes.1
    Citations
    [S8] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition, 2 volumes (Crans, Switzerland: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 1999), volume 1, page 1. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition.
    Captain Thomas Fellowes1
    M, #564

    Last Edited=16 Jan 2011
    Captain Thomas Fellowes married Catherine Mary Abdy, daughter of Captain Sir William Abdy, 6th Bt. and Mary Brebner-Gordon.1
    He gained the rank of Captain in the service of the Royal Navy.1
    Citations
    [S8] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition, 2 volumes (Crans, Switzerland: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 1999), volume 1, page 1. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition.
    Charlotte Anne Abdy1
    F, #565, b. 27 March 1783

    Charlotte Anne Abdy|b. 27 Mar 1783|p57.htm#i565|Captain Sir William Abdy, 6th Bt.|b. c 1732\nd. 21 Jul 1803|p48.htm#i474|Mary Brebner-Gordon|d. 4 Mar 1829|p48.htm#i475|Sir William Abdy, 4th Bt.|b. 1 Sep 1689\nd. 18 Jan 1749/50|p47.htm#i468|Mary Stotherd|d. 6 Apr 1743|p47.htm#i469|James Brebner-Gordon||p48.htm#i476|Anne Lavington||p48.htm#i477|

    Last Edited=17 Jan 2011
    Charlotte Anne Abdy was baptised on 27 March 1783.1 She was the daughter of Captain Sir William Abdy, 6th Bt. and Mary Brebner-Gordon.1 She married Charles Andrew Caldwell, son of Admiral Sir Benjamin Caldwell, on 1 December 1808.1
    From 1 December 1808, her married name became Caldwell.1
    Citations
    [S8] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition, 2 volumes (Crans, Switzerland: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 1999), volume 1, page 1. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition.

    Charles Andrew Caldwell1,2
    M, #566, b. 25 March 1785, d. 11 February 1859

    Charles Andrew Caldwell|b. 25 Mar 1785\nd. 11 Feb 1859|p57.htm#i566|Admiral Sir Benjamin Caldwell|b. 31 Jan 1738/39\nd. 1820|p20458.htm#i204576||||Charles Caldwell|b. 14 Jun 1707\nd. 1776|p34234.htm#i342339||||||||||

    Last Edited=16 Jan 2011
    Charles Andrew Caldwell was born on 25 March 1785.2 He was the son of Admiral Sir Benjamin Caldwell.2 He married Charlotte Anne Abdy, daughter of Captain Sir William Abdy, 6th Bt. and Mary Brebner-Gordon, on 1 December 1808.1 He died on 11 February 1859 at age 73.2
    Citations
    [S8] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition, 2 volumes (Crans, Switzerland: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 1999), volume 1, page 1. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition.
    [S142] Bernard, Sir Burke, editor, Burke’s genealogical and heraldic history of the landed gentry of Ireland, 3rd ed. (London, U.K.: Burkes Peerage Ltd, 1912), page 95. Hereinafter cited as Landed Gentry of Ireland.
    Harriet Abdy1
    F, #567, b. 20 July 1786

    Harriet Abdy|b. 20 Jul 1786|p57.htm#i567|Captain Sir William Abdy, 6th Bt.|b. c 1732\nd. 21 Jul 1803|p48.htm#i474|Mary Brebner-Gordon|d. 4 Mar 1829|p48.htm#i475|Sir William Abdy, 4th Bt.|b. 1 Sep 1689\nd. 18 Jan 1749/50|p47.htm#i468|Mary Stotherd|d. 6 Apr 1743|p47.htm#i469|James Brebner-Gordon||p48.htm#i476|Anne Lavington||p48.htm#i477|

    Last Edited=17 Jan 2011
    Harriet Abdy was baptised on 20 July 1786.1 She was the daughter of Captain Sir William Abdy, 6th Bt. and Mary Brebner-Gordon.1 She married Reverend George Caldwell, son of Charles Caldwell, on 4 December 1817.1
    From 4 December 1817, her married name became Caldwell.1
    Child of Harriet Abdy and Reverend George Caldwell
    Catherine Anne Caldwell+
    Citations
    [S8] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition, 2 volumes (Crans, Switzerland: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 1999), volume 1, page 1. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition.
    Reverend George Caldwell1
    M, #568

    Reverend George Caldwell||p57.htm#i568|Charles Caldwell|b. 1737\nd. 10 Jan 1814|p20873.htm#i208721||||Charles Caldwell|b. 14 Jun 1707\nd. 1776|p34234.htm#i342339||||||||||

    Last Edited=16 Jan 2011
    Reverend George Caldwell is the son of Charles Caldwell.2 He married Harriet Abdy, daughter of Captain Sir William Abdy, 6th Bt. and Mary Brebner-Gordon, on 4 December 1817.3
    He was also known as Bernard George Caldwell.4
    Child of Reverend George Caldwell and Harriet Abdy
    Catherine Anne Caldwell+4
    Citations
    [S47] Hugh Montgomery-Massingberd, editor, Burke’s Irish Family Records (London, U.K.: Burkes Peerage Ltd, 1976), page 553. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Irish Family Records.
    [S142] Bernard, Sir Burke, editor, Burke’s genealogical and heraldic history of the landed gentry of Ireland, 3rd ed. (London, U.K.: Burkes Peerage Ltd, 1912), page 95. Hereinafter cited as Landed Gentry of Ireland.
    [S8] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition, 2 volumes (Crans, Switzerland: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 1999), volume 1, page 1. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition.
    [S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume XIII, page 225. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
    Charlotte Elizabeth Abdy1
    F, #569, b. between 1715 and 1733

    Charlotte Elizabeth Abdy|b. bt 1715 – 1733|p57.htm#i569|Sir William Abdy, 4th Bt.|b. 1 Sep 1689\nd. 18 Jan 1749/50|p47.htm#i468|Mary Stotherd|d. 6 Apr 1743|p47.htm#i469|Sir Anthony Abdy, 2nd Bt.|b. c 1655\nd. 2 Apr 1704|p45.htm#i449|Mary Milward|b. c 1658\nd. 18 Aug 1744|p45.htm#i450|Philip Stotherd||p47.htm#i470||||

    Last Edited=17 Jan 2011
    Charlotte Elizabeth Abdy was born between 1715 and 1733.1 She was the daughter of Sir William Abdy, 4th Bt. and Mary Stotherd.1 She married Thomas Rutherforth on 11 April 1752.1
    From 11 April 1752, her married name became Rutherforth.1
    Child of Charlotte Elizabeth Abdy and Thomas Rutherforth
    Reverend Thomas Abdy+1 b. 5 Dec 1755, d. 14 Oct 1798
    Citations
    [S8] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition, 2 volumes (Crans, Switzerland: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 1999), volume 1, page 1. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition.
    Thomas Rutherforth1
    M, #570, d. 5 October 1771

    Last Edited=16 Jan 2011
    Thomas Rutherforth married Charlotte Elizabeth Abdy, daughter of Sir William Abdy, 4th Bt. and Mary Stotherd, on 11 April 1752.1 He died on 5 October 1771.1
    He graduated with a Doctor of Divinity (D.D.).1 He was Regius Professor of Divinity at Cambridge University, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England.1
    Child of Thomas Rutherforth and Charlotte Elizabeth Abdy
    Reverend Thomas Abdy+1 b. 5 Dec 1755, d. 14 Oct 1798
    Citations
    [S8] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition, 2 volumes (Crans, Switzerland: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 1999), volume 1, page 1. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition.

    • Renee says:

      Catherine Mary Abdy was baptised on 27 December 1776.1 She was the daughter of Captain Sir William Abdy, 6th Bt. and Mary Brebner-Gordon.1 She married Captain Thomas Fellowes.1
      Her married name became Fellowes

      NOTE* FELLOWES*

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jane_Fellowes,_Baroness_Fellowes
      Lady Fellowes is the daughter of Edward John Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer (1924–1992) and Hon. Frances Ruth Burke Roche (1936–2004). Her parents married in 1954 but divorced in 1969. She has always used her middle name of Jane (just as her elder sister also uses one of her middle names). One of Jane’s godparents is Prince Edward, Duke of Kent. She was a bridesmaid at his 1961 wedding to Katharine Worsley. [1]

      Like her sisters, Lady Fellowes was educated at West Heath boarding school near Sevenoaks in Kent. Sources say she was an excellent student, achieving the status of school Prefect and passing a good number of A-level exams. To paraphrase Andrew Morton, Lady Fellowes acquired a “hatful” of O-level and A-level exams.[2] Her successful exams suggest that she is the most academically gifted of the three sisters.

      [edit] Marriage and childrenIn March 1978, Jane married her distant relation Robert Fellowes (b. 1941), then assistant private secretary to the Queen. During the ceremony at Westminster Abbey, Jane’s sister Diana was a bridesmaid. Photos of Diana as her sister’s bridesmaid can be seen at theroyalpost.com/2012/04/16/royal-flower-girls-bridesmaids-page-boys-part-two/ and in many books about the life of Diana, Princess of Wales.

      In June 1999, Robert Fellowes was granted a Life Peerage as Baron Fellowes, of Shotesham in the County of Norfolk, after first being knighted as Sir Robert Fellowes.[3]

      Lord and Lady Fellowes have three children, who all bear the style of “The Honourable” since June 1999 as the children of a Life Peer:

      The Hon. Laura Jane Fellowes (born 19 July 1980) Married Nick Pettman (30 May 2009)
      The Hon. Alexander Robert Fellowes (born 23 March 1983)
      The Hon. Eleanor Ruth Fellowes (born 20 August 1985)
      These children are first cousins of Prince William and Prince Harry on the maternal side, and according to some news reports, are close friends of their Royal cousins.

      Lady Diana Spencer came up to Scotland in the summer of 1980 to help her sister with her newborn daughter Laura Jane, and during that time, was allegedly courted by the Prince of Wales.

      [edit] Relationship with Diana, Princess of WalesLady Fellowes is the only member of the Spencer family who has never spoken to the media about the death of Diana or her life. After Diana’s death, conflicting views about the two sisters’ relationship have been voiced by different people. Diana’s butler Paul Burrell stated that the relationship was strained because of Lord Fellowes’s position as secretary to the Queen and that by the time of Diana’s death they had not even spoken in a number of years. [4] On the other hand, Diana’s childhood nanny, Mary Clarke, author of memoirs about the nanny’s experience raising Diana and her three Spencer siblings, stated that the relations between the Baroness and Diana were not as bitter as Burrell and others have said or assumed.[5] It is not clear when their relationship deteriorated (if it did), but the sisters were neighbours on the Kensington Palace estate, with Diana living at Numbers 8 and 9, and Lady Fellowes living at a house called the Old Barracks.[6]

      According to a 1998 interview, when Lady Fellows announced the news of Diana’s death to their brother Charles, Earl Spencer: “I’m afraid that’s it, she’s dead.”[citation needed]

      Sarah and Lady Fellowes flew to Paris along with their former brother-in-law Prince Charles to escort Diana’s body back for the public funeral. Many witnesses reported that Lady Fellowes was very upset and needed to be assisted into a chair after seeing Diana’s body at the hospital in Paris. Both sisters played a part in the public funeral ceremony. Since Diana’s death, Lord and Lady Fellowes have led a largely private life along with their three children. Lady Fellowes also attended the wedding of her nephew Prince William to Catherine Elizabeth “Kate” Middleton on 29 April 2011.

      NOTE* Nanny Mary CLARK*

      NOTE*****
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frances_Shand_Kydd

  4. Renee says:

    http://thepeerage.com/p58.htm
    Ann Hester Abdy1
    F, #571, b. 3 January 1734

    Ann Hester Abdy|b. 3 Jan 1734|p58.htm#i571|Sir William Abdy, 4th Bt.|b. 1 Sep 1689\nd. 18 Jan 1749/50|p47.htm#i468|Mary Stotherd|d. 6 Apr 1743|p47.htm#i469|Sir Anthony Abdy, 2nd Bt.|b. c 1655\nd. 2 Apr 1704|p45.htm#i449|Mary Milward|b. c 1658\nd. 18 Aug 1744|p45.htm#i450|Philip Stotherd||p47.htm#i470||||

    Last Edited=17 Jan 2011
    Ann Hester Abdy was baptised on 3 January 1734.1 She was the daughter of Sir William Abdy, 4th Bt. and Mary Stotherd.1
    Citations
    [S8] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition, 2 volumes (Crans, Switzerland: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 1999), volume 1, page 1. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition.
    John Rutherforth Abdy1
    M, #572, b. circa 1779, d. 1 April 1840

    John Rutherforth Abdy|b. c 1779\nd. 1 Apr 1840|p58.htm#i572|Reverend Thomas Abdy|b. 5 Dec 1755\nd. 14 Oct 1798|p3082.htm#i30815|Mary Hayes|d. 8 Dec 1820|p3082.htm#i30816|Thomas Rutherforth|d. 5 Oct 1771|p57.htm#i570|Charlotte E. Abdy|b. bt 1715 – 1733|p57.htm#i569|James Hayes||p3082.htm#i30817||||

    Last Edited=6 Apr 2003
    John Rutherforth Abdy was born circa 1779.1 He was the son of Reverend Thomas Abdy and Mary Hayes.1 He married Caroline ELizabeth Hatch, daughter of James Hatch, on 17 July 1800.1 He died on 1 April 1840, without issue.1
    From 17 July 1800, his married name became John Rutherforth Abdy Hatch. He held the office of High Sheriff of Essex in 1809.1
    Citations
    [S8] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition, 2 volumes (Crans, Switzerland: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 1999), volume 1, page 1. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition.
    Caroline ELizabeth Hatch1
    F, #573, d. 5 May 1838

    Caroline ELizabeth Hatch|d. 5 May 1838|p58.htm#i573|James Hatch||p58.htm#i574||||||||||||||||

    Last Edited=6 Apr 2003
    Caroline ELizabeth Hatch was the daughter of James Hatch.1 She married John Rutherforth Abdy, son of Reverend Thomas Abdy and Mary Hayes, on 17 July 1800.1 She died on 5 May 1838.1
    Citations
    [S8] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition, 2 volumes (Crans, Switzerland: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 1999), volume 1, page 1. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition.
    James Hatch1
    M, #574

    Last Edited=6 Apr 2003
    James Hatch lived at Clayberry Hall, Essex, England.1
    Child of James Hatch
    Caroline ELizabeth Hatch1 d. 5 May 1838
    Citations
    [S8] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition, 2 volumes (Crans, Switzerland: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 1999), volume 1, page 1. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition.
    Reverend Charles Boyd Abdy1
    M, #575, b. between 1781 and 1798, d. 20 August 1843

    Reverend Charles Boyd Abdy|b. bt 1781 – 1798\nd. 20 Aug 1843|p58.htm#i575|Reverend Thomas Abdy|b. 5 Dec 1755\nd. 14 Oct 1798|p3082.htm#i30815|Mary Hayes|d. 8 Dec 1820|p3082.htm#i30816|Thomas Rutherforth|d. 5 Oct 1771|p57.htm#i570|Charlotte E. Abdy|b. bt 1715 – 1733|p57.htm#i569|James Hayes||p3082.htm#i30817||||

    Last Edited=27 Jan 2007
    Reverend Charles Boyd Abdy was born between 1781 and 1798.1 He was the son of Reverend Thomas Abdy and Mary Hayes.1 He died on 20 August 1843, unmarried.1
    He was the Rector between 1812 and 1843 at Theydon Garnon, Essex, England.1 He held the office of Justice of the Peace (J.P.) for Essex.1
    Citations
    [S8] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition, 2 volumes (Crans, Switzerland: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 1999), volume 1, page 1. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition.

    Lt.-Col. James Nicholas Abdy1
    M, #576, b. between 1782 and 1798, d. 1855

    Lt.-Col. James Nicholas Abdy|b. bt 1782 – 1798\nd. 1855|p58.htm#i576|Reverend Thomas Abdy|b. 5 Dec 1755\nd. 14 Oct 1798|p3082.htm#i30815|Mary Hayes|d. 8 Dec 1820|p3082.htm#i30816|Thomas Rutherforth|d. 5 Oct 1771|p57.htm#i570|Charlotte E. Abdy|b. bt 1715 – 1733|p57.htm#i569|James Hayes||p3082.htm#i30817||||

    Last Edited=7 Apr 2003
    Lt.-Col. James Nicholas Abdy was born between 1782 and 1798.1 He was the son of Reverend Thomas Abdy and Mary Hayes.1 He married Georgina Charlotte King, daughter of Thomas King.1 He died in 1855.1
    He gained the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel in the service of the Honourable East India Company Service.1
    Citations
    [S8] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition, 2 volumes (Crans, Switzerland: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 1999), volume 1, page 1. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition.
    Georgina Charlotte King1
    F, #577

    Georgina Charlotte King||p58.htm#i577|Thomas King||p58.htm#i578||||||||||||||||

    Last Edited=5 Jun 2008
    Georgina Charlotte King was the daughter of Thomas King.1 She married Lt.-Col. James Nicholas Abdy, son of Reverend Thomas Abdy and Mary Hayes.1
    Her married name became Abdy.1
    Citations
    [S8] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition, 2 volumes (Crans, Switzerland: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 1999), volume 1, page 1. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition.
    Thomas King1
    M, #578

    Last Edited=5 Jun 2008
    Thomas King lived at Eltham, Kent, England.1
    Child of Thomas King
    Georgina Charlotte King1
    Citations
    [S8] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition, 2 volumes (Crans, Switzerland: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 1999), volume 1, page 1. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition.
    Edward Strutt Abdy1
    M, #579, b. circa 1790, d. 12 October 1846

    Edward Strutt Abdy|b. c 1790\nd. 12 Oct 1846|p58.htm#i579|Reverend Thomas Abdy|b. 5 Dec 1755\nd. 14 Oct 1798|p3082.htm#i30815|Mary Hayes|d. 8 Dec 1820|p3082.htm#i30816|Thomas Rutherforth|d. 5 Oct 1771|p57.htm#i570|Charlotte E. Abdy|b. bt 1715 – 1733|p57.htm#i569|James Hayes||p3082.htm#i30817||||

    Last Edited=1 Jul 2008
    Edward Strutt Abdy was born circa 1790.1 He was the son of Reverend Thomas Abdy and Mary Hayes.1 He died on 12 October 1846, unmarried.1
    He graduated from Jesus College, Cambridge University, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England, in 1813 with a Bachelor of Arts (B.A.).1 He graduated from Jesus College, Cambridge University, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England, in 1817 with a Master of Arts (M.A.).1 He wrote the book Journal of a Residence and Tour in the United States of America, from April 1833 to Oct 1834, published 1835.1 He has an extensive biographical entry in the Dictionary of National Biography.2

    Charlotte Ann Abdy1
    F, #580

    Charlotte Ann Abdy||p58.htm#i580|Reverend Thomas Abdy|b. 5 Dec 1755\nd. 14 Oct 1798|p3082.htm#i30815|Mary Hayes|d. 8 Dec 1820|p3082.htm#i30816|Thomas Rutherforth|d. 5 Oct 1771|p57.htm#i570|Charlotte E. Abdy|b. bt 1715 – 1733|p57.htm#i569|James Hayes||p3082.htm#i30817||||

    Last Edited=9 May 2008
    Charlotte Ann Abdy was the daughter of Reverend Thomas Abdy and Mary Hayes.1 She died, unmarried.1
    Citations
    [S8] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition, 2 volumes (Crans, Switzerland: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 1999), volume 1, page 1. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition.

  5. Renee says:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sir_William_Abdy,_2nd_Baronet#Sir_William_Abdy.2C_2nd_Baronet
    Sir Thomas Abdy, 1st Baronet (1612 – 14 January 1686), was an English lawyer and landowner, the son of Anthony Abdy and Abigail Campbell. Abdy was baptized on 18 May 1612, and educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, to which he was admitted in 1629 as a Fellow Commoner.[1] He became a member of Lincoln’s Inn in 1632. Abdy married Mary Corsellis on 1 February 1638 at St Peter Le Poer, London, by whom he had three children, James (b. 1639, d. young), Rachael (b. 1640), and Abigail (b. 1644). Abdy inherited the family seat of Felix Hall, Essex, upon his father’s death in 1640, and was created a baronet in the following year, on 14 July 1641. Mary died on 6 April 1645 and was buried at Kelvedon. On 16 January 1647, Sir Thomas made a second marriage, at St Bartholomew the Less, London, to Anne Soame, daughter of Sir Thomas Soame, an alderman of London. They had ten children: Anthony (1655–1704), Thomas (d. 1697), William (d. 1682), Joanna (1654–1710), Alice (b. 1661), Anna (d. 1692), Mary, Judith, Sarah, and Elizabeth. In 1651, Abdy was named High Sheriff of Essex, but continued to prosper after the Restoration, seeking a lease from the Crown soon afterwards of the sugar duty. He inherited the property of his cousin Sir Christopher Abdy of Uxbridge in 1679, the same year in which his wife Anne died, on 16 June 1679. Abdy died on 14 January 1686 and was buried at Theydon Garnons, Essex, being succeeded by his son Anthony. His monument at Theydon Garnons was, perhaps, designed by William Stanton.
    Sir Anthony Abdy, 2nd Baronet (1655 – 2 April 1704) was an English landowner, eldest surviving son of the 1st Baronet. Baptized on 4 July 1655, he was educated, like his father, at Trinity College, to which he was admitted in 1672.[2] He married Mary Milward, daughter of Rev. Dr. Richard Milward, on 9 June 1682, by whom he had thirteen children: Thomas (d. young), Joanna (1686–1765), Elizabeth (b. 1687), Anthony Thomas (1688–1733), William (1689–1750), Rachel (b. 1690), Charles (b. 1693), Richard (b. 1694), Alice (b. 1695), Margaret (1696–1779), Martha (1700–1780), Anna (d. 1738), and Mary (b. c.1703). Anthony succeeded to the baronetcy in 1686 on the death of his father, and died on 2 April 1704. He was buried at Kelvedon, where his monument was designed by Edward Stanton, and was succeeded by his son Anthony Thomas in the baronetcy.
    Sir Anthony Thomas Abdy, 3rd Baronet (1688 – 11 June 1733), English lawyer and landowner, was the eldest surviving son of the 2nd Baronet, and succeeded to the baronetcy in 1704. Abdy was admitted to Lincoln’s Inn on 9 October 1708. His first wife was Mary Gifford, by whom he had no children. By his second wife, Charlotte Barndardiston (d. 19 February 1731), daughter of Sir Thomas Barnardiston, 3rd Baronet, he had one daughter, Charlotte, who married John Williams, son of Sir John Williams, Lord Mayor of London. By his third wife, a Miss Williams, he likewise had no male issue, and upon his death in 1733, was succeeded in the baronetcy by his brother William.
    Sir William Abdy, 4th Baronet (1689 – 25 January 1750), English landowner, was the second surviving son of the 2nd Baronet. He married the daughter of Philip Stotherd, and by her had three sons, Anthony Thomas (c.1720–1775), Rev. Stotherd (d. 5 April 1773), and Capt. William, and several daughters, including Charlotte Elizabeth, who married Rev. Dr. Thomas Rutherforth on 11 April 1752. He succeeded to the baronetcy upon the death of his brother in 1733. On his own death in 1750, he was succeeded by his eldest son, Anthony Thomas.
    Sir Anthony Thomas Abdy, 5th Baronet, KC (c.1720 – 16 April 1775), English lawyer and landowner, was the eldest son of the 4th Baronet. He became a king’s counsel, and represented Knaresborough in the House of Commons from 1763 until his death. He left his estates to his nephew, Thomas Abdy Rutherforth, while the baronetcy passed to his brother William.
    Captain Sir William Abdy, 6th Baronet (c.1732 – 21 July 1803), English landowner and naval officer, was the third surviving son of the 4th Baronet. He became a captain in the Royal Navy before inheriting the baronetcy from his brother Sir Anthony in 1775 (the second brother, Rev. Stotherd, having died in 1773). He married Mary Gordon, by whom he had one son, William (1779–1868).
    Sir William Abdy, 7th Baronet (1779 – 16 April 1868), English landowner, was the only son of the 6th Baronet. He was educated at Eton, and succeeded to the baronetcy in 1803. Abdy served in the militia and was an active magistrate for Surrey, and briefly served as a Member of Parliament. He married Anne Wellesley in 1806, but the two were divorced in 1816, without issue. The baronetcy became extinct upon his death.
    [edit] Abdy baronets, of Albyns, Essex (first creation)Abdy baronets, of Albyns (1660)
    Arms Or two Chevronels between three Trefoils slipped Sable
    Created in the Baronetage of England 9 June 1660
    Sir Robert Abdy, 1st Baronet (c. 1615–1670)
    Sir John Abdy, 2nd Baronet (1643–1691)
    Sir Robert Abdy, 3rd Baronet (1688–1748) MP for Essex 1727-1748
    Sir John Abdy, 4th Baronet (c. 1714–1759) MP for Essex 1748-1759
    Extinct on his death
    [edit] Abdy baronets, of Moores, EssexCreated in the Baronetage of England 22 June 1660
    Sir John Abdy, 1st Baronet (c. 1620–1662)
    Extinct on his death
    [edit] Abdy baronets, of Albyns (1849–)Abdy Baronets, of Albyns (1849)
    Arms Or two Chevronnels between three Trefoils slipped Sable
    Crest An Eagle’s Head couped proper beaked Azure
    Motto Tenax et Fidelis (Tenacious and faithful)
    The Abdy Baronetcy, of Albyns, in the County of Essex, was created in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom on 22 December 1849[3] for Thomas Neville Abdy who sat for Lyme Regis in the British House of Commons.

    [edit] IncumbentsSir Thomas Neville Abdy, 1st Baronet (1810–1877)
    Sir William Neville Abdy, 2nd Baronet (18 June 1844 – 9 August 1910) was the eldest son of Sir Thomas Abdy, 1st Baronet. He succeeded his father in 1877. Educated at Merton College, Oxford, he served as a Justice of the Peace for Essex, and was named High Sheriff of the county in 1884. He married three times, but had no children, and was succeeded by his brother Anthony.
    Sir Anthony Charles Sykes Abdy, 3rd Baronet (19 September 1848 – 17 May 1921) was a British soldier, the second son of Sir Thomas Abdy, 1st Baronet. He served in the 2nd Life Guards, rising to the rank of captain, and fought in the 1882 Anglo-Egyptian War. Abdy was a military attaché in Vienna in 1885. He married Hon. Alexandrina Victoria Macdonald, daughter of Godfrey Macdonald, 4th Baron Macdonald and Maria Anne Wyndham, on 11 November 1886. They had three daughters: Grace Lillian (1887–?), married Henry Butler, 8th Earl of Lanesborough in 1917, Violet (1892–1957), married Hugh Godsal in 1925, and Constance Mary (1895–?), married Harold Frederick Andorsen in 1941. Upon the death of his elder brother William in 1910 without children, Anthony succeeded to the baronetcy.
    Sir Henry Beadon Abdy, 4th Baronet (13 July 1853 – 1 December 1921) was the fourth son of Sir Thomas Abdy, 1st Baronet. He married Anna Adele Coronna (d. 21 March 1920) on 22 March 1891, and had two sons by her: William Neville (1895–1911), who predeceased him, and Robert (1896–1976). He succeeded to the baronetcy when his brother Anthony died in May 1921, leaving only daughters, but Sir Henry died that December, and was succeeded by his only surviving son.
    Sir Robert Henry Edward Abdy, 5th Baronet (11 September 1896 – 17 November 1976) was the second son of Sir Henry Abdy, 4th Baronet. He was educated at Charterhouse School and the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, and subsequently became a lieutenant in the 15th/19th The King’s Royal Hussars. Sir Robert married Iya De Gay on 23 June 1923, but they were divorced in 1928. Two years later, on 10 February 1930, he married Lady Helen Diana Bridgeman (1907-1967), daughter of the 5th Earl of Bradford. They had one son, Valentine (b. 1937), before being divorced in 1962. Sir Robert’s third wife was Jane Noble, whom he married on 5 September 1962 and divorced in 1973.
    Sir Valentine Robert Duff Abdy, 6th Baronet (11 September 1937 – 27 June 2012) was the only son of Sir Robert Abdy, 5th Baronet. Educated at Eton College, he was a European Representative at the Smithsonian Institution, 1983–1995, serving in 1995 as a member of the National Board. He was Special Advisor to the International Fund for the Promotion of Culture, UNESCO in 1991. He was been a member of the Organising Committee, Cité de l’Espace, Toulouse from 1999. Sir Valentine married Mathilde Marie Alexe Christianne de la Ferté in 1971, and they had one son, Robert Etienne Eric Abdy (b. 1978), before divorcing in 1982.
    Sir Robert Etienne Eric Abdy, 7th Baronet (b. 1978), the only son of the 6th Baronet, as above.
    [edit] ReferencesThis page incorporates information from Leigh Rayment’s Baronetage Page([self-published source][better source needed]) which has further dates on it, not shown above.
    Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage 1924
    thePeerage.com
    ‘ABDY, Sir William Neville’, Who Was Who, A & C Black, 1920–2007; online edn, Oxford University Press, Dec 2007
    ‘ABDY, Captain Sir Anthony (Charles Sykes)’, Who Was Who, A & C Black, 1920–2007; online edn, Oxford University Press, Dec 2007
    ‘ABDY, Sir Henry Beadon’, Who Was Who, A & C Black, 1920–2007; online edn, Oxford University Press, Dec 2007
    ‘ABDY, Sir Robert (Henry Edward)’, Who Was Who, A & C Black, 1920–2007; online edn, Oxford University Press, Dec 2007
    ‘ABDY, Sir Valentine (Robert Duff)’, Who’s Who 2008, A & C Black, 2008; online edn, Oxford University Press, Dec 2007
    ^ Venn, J.; Venn, J. A., eds. (1922–1958). “Abdy, Thomas”. Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed.). Cambridge University Press.
    ^ Venn, J.; Venn, J. A., eds. (1922–1958). “Abdy, Anthony”. Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed.). Cambridge University Press.
    ^ The London Gazette: no. 21053. p. 3915. 25 December 1849. Retrieved 6 April 2009.
    Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Abdy_baronets&oldid=519621245#Sir_William_Abdy.2C_2nd_Baronet”
    Categories: BaronetciesExtinct baronetciesEnglish landownersHidden categories: Accuracy disputes from March 2012All pages needing factual verificationWikipedia articles needing factual verification from March 2012.

    Soundex Code for Abdi = A130
    Other surnames sharing this Soundex Code:
    ABAT | ABBOT | ABBOTT |

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abbott_Laboratories

  6. Renee says:

    http://www.atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/KL05Df03.html
    ISLAMABAD – Notwithstanding the surge of 30,000 additional United States troops in Afghanistan, as outlined by US President Barack Obama in his policy speech on Tuesday, the next phase of the war will primarily be aimed at fighting al-Qaeda in Pakistan’s tribal areas, while all efforts in Afghanistan will focus on a peaceful settlement to pave the way for an American exit.

    This is the view of one of the two principal intermediaries between the US and the Afghan national resistance, Daoud Abedi (the other is Mullah Zaeef), whose role was first reported by Asia Times Online. (See Holbrooke reaches out to Hekmatyar April 10, 2009.)

    Washington initiated dialogue with the veteran mujahid, Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, leader of the Hezb-i-Islami Afghanistan (HIA), through his longtime lieutenant, Abedi. Abedi is an Afghan-American
    based in Los Angeles, a prominent businessman and social worker as well as being a former representative of the HIA.

    He believes that Obama’s surge is the start of an exit strategy to bring peace to Afghanistan by pushing the war into the Pakistani tribal areas against al-Qaeda. After all, the objective of the invasion of Afghanistan in 2001 was to topple the Taliban regime as it had allowed al-Qaeda to operate in the country. After eight years, the US’s efforts have been reset around this objective, even if it means greater activity in Pakistan.

    In his Tuesday speech, Obama urged Pakistan to fight the “cancer” of extremism and said the US would not tolerate Pakistan allowing its territory to be a safe haven for militants. Testifying this week on Obama’s new war plan, his senior military and diplomatic advisers all stressed that Pakistan was a critical component of the strategy.

    There are already pointers of the war moving more in Pakistan’s direction.

    British Prime Minister Gordon Brown, a close ally of the US, this week said that both al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden and his deputy, Ayman al-Zawahiri, were still at large and questioned why Pakistani security forces had not done more to catch them. “If we are putting our strategy into place, Pakistan has to show that it can take on al-Qaeda,” he said.

    Pakistani Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani responded that his country had not received any credible intelligence on the whereabouts of the leaders. “I doubt the information which you are giving is correct because I don’t think Osama bin Laden is in Pakistan,” he said.

    In a related development, the White House this week is reported to have approved an expansion of the Central Intelligence Agency’s drone program from the North Waziristan and South Waziristan tribal areas in Pakistan to southern Balochistan province. Top Taliban and al-Qaeda figures are believed to operate from Balochistan. Here, Pakistan already faces a low-level insurgency from Baloch rebels seeking provincial autonomy.

    Unmanned drone attacks in the tribal areas over the past few years have killed a number of al-Qaeda members as well as Pakistani Taliban commanders. This year alone, nearly 50 strikes in the northwestern border regions have killed 415 people.

    The grand plan
    Abedi visited Pakistan and Afghanistan earlier this year and held talks with US and British officials, including the US envoy for Pakistan and Afghanistan, Richard Holbrooke. In a personal capacity, Abedi, whose roots go back to Kandahar in Afghanistan, knows several top Taliban leaders and commanders.
    In an exclusive e-mail correspondence with Asia Times Online, Abedi said he was privy to information that Obama had been prepared to announce the withdrawal date of July 2011 – as he did on Tuesday – but without sending the extra troops. However, there were two main problems:

    The US would not accept a Taliban government, to be known to the world as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, to be led by the Taliban leader, Mullah Omar. That is, under no circumstances would Mullah Omar be allowed to feature in any new setup.

    The US wanted to be able to claim the defeat of al-Qaeda – at present, the US believes it has only been 70% successful.

    Abedi said, “If they [the US] can be assured somehow that the Taliban are not going to overrun any transitional government, and are going to allow the so-called international community to leave behind a stable transitional government which could function for at least 18 months to two years based on Islamic and so-called international values, they might very much be willing to do what they are saying, which is to exit even faster than 18 months.”

    Abedi suggested, “If the Obama administration somehow managed to come up with the [necessary] number of Afghan soldiers and police to hand over security to them, and then a [loya jirga] grand council was called by [Afghan President Hamid] Karzai after 18 months and political power was turned over to a number of people [transitional government] who were for the time being accepted by all sides of the conflict, this would give the occupiers a chance to leave … Brother Hekmatyar and Mullah Omar Mujahid both have said that they won’t attack foreign forces on the way out if they pull out of the country immediately.

    “The other side [Karzai government] would not be a concern for the US; they can be slapped on the face and told to shut up and do what they are told … just like [what happened after] the so-called [August presidential] elections when they told [rival runoff candidate Abdullah] Abdullah to back off and stay quiet, which he gladly did …”

    Abedi, who has had dialogue with senior US officials in addition to Holbrooke on behalf of Hekmatyar, continued, “We know that July 2011 is a start date without an exact end date, and it may be argued at that time that the situation on the ground does not allow US forces and NATO [North Atlantic Treaty Organization] to leave the country … What do you think the US and its allies would do next? Would there be another surge? Atom bomb? Or something else?”

    Abedi said that for the US, losing or winning the war in Afghanistan is immaterial – its real fight is against al-Qaeda, and therefore in the next phase of the war, the real fight, will be against al-Qaeda.

    Soundex Code for Abedi = A130
    Other surnames sharing this Soundex Code:
    ABAT | ABBOT | ABBOTT |

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abbott_Laboratories

    http://www.opednews.com/articles/FOR-IMMEDIATE-RELEASE-by-Paul-Fitzgerald-100415-28.html

  7. Renee says:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huma_Abedin

    oops, nothing there…

    Soundex Code for Abedin = A135
    Other surnames sharing this Soundex Code:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bank_of_Credit_and_Commerce_International

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agha_Hasan_Abedi
    Agha Hasan AbediFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Jump to: navigation, search
    This article is about the financier. For the journalist, see Hasan Abedi.
    Agha Hasan Abedi also known as Agha Sahab (May 14, 1922, Lucknow, India – August 5, 1995, Karachi, Pakistan) was a banker and philanthropist who founded the Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) in 1972. BCCI was at one point the seventh largest private bank in the world, but it collapsed in 1991 after regulators in the United States and the United Kingdom found it was involved in a money laundering scandal. Mr. Abedi underwent a heart transplant operation in 1988, and died of a heart attack on August 5, 1995 in Karachi.

  8. Renee says:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aga_Khan
    This article is about the hereditary title. For the incumbent, see Aga Khan IV. For other uses, see Aga Khan (disambiguation).
    Aga Khan (Persian: آغا خان‎; also transliterated as Aqa Khan and Agha Khan[1]) is said by author Farhad Daftary[2] to be the hereditary title of the Imam of the Nizari Ismaili community (although in a legal proceeding, the Aga Khan III noted that Aga Khan is not a title, but instead a sort of alias or “pet name” that was given to the Aga Khan I when he was a young man[3]). The Nizari Ismaili community is a denomination of Ismailism within Shia Islam and consists of approximately 5-15 million adherents (under 10% of the world’s Shia Muslim population).[4][5][6][7] The Nizari Ismailis recognize the Imamat of the descendants of Ismail ibn Jafar, eldest son of Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq. On the other hand Twelver Shi`ism, the largest denomination of Shia Islam, recognizes the Imamat of the descendants of Ismail’s younger brother Musa al-Kazim.[citation needed] The Fatimid Caliphate was ruled by seven leaders, after which a dispute regarding leadership developed between two brothers – Nizar and Mustali – ultimately resulting in the defeat of Nizar and his followers (“Nizari” Ismailis), many of whom left Egypt for the region of Iran.[citation needed]

    In 1887, the colonial rulers of India, the Secretary of State for India acting through the Viceroy of India, formally recognized the title Aga Khan.[citation needed] During the latter stages of the First Anglo-Afghan War (in 1841 and 1842), Aga Khan I and his cavalry officers provided assistance to General Nott in Kandahar Province and also to General England in his advance from Sindh to join Nott.[citation needed] For these services, and others which Aga Khan I rendered to Sir Charles Napier in his conquest of Sindh in 1843–44, the Aga Khan received a pension from the British Government of India.[citation needed] He was awarded his the status of “Prince” by the British government’s representatives in India and became the only religious or community leader in British India granted a personal gun salute[citation needed]; all other salute dynasties were either rulers of Princely States, or Political Pensioners holding ancestral princely titles in states abolished by the British.[citation needed] When Hassan Ali Shah, the first Aga Khan, came to Sindh from Afghanistan, he and his army were welcomed by Mir Nasir Khan of Sindh.

  9. Renee says:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Josef_Korbel
    Josef Korbel (born Josef Körbel; 20 September 1909 – 18 July 1977) was a Czechoslovak diplomat and political scientist, who is now best known as the father of Bill Clinton’s Secretary of State, Madeleine Albright, and the mentor of George W. Bush’s Secretary of State, Condoleezza Rice.

    At the time of Madelaine Albright’s birth, her father was serving as press-attaché at the Czechoslovak Embassy in Belgrade.

    Though he served as a diplomat in the government of Czechoslovakia, Korbel’s Jewish heritage forced him to flee after the Nazi invasion in 1939. Prior to their flight, Körbel and his wife had converted from Judaism to Roman Catholicism.[1] He served as an advisor to Edvard Beneš, the exiled Czech president in London, until the Nazis were defeated.

    He then returned to Czechoslovakia, receiving a luxurious Prague apartment previously owned by Karl Nebrich, a Bohemian German industrialist expropriated and expelled under the so-called Beneš decrees. (Acquisition of this property later caused legal problems; see below.) Korbel was asked by the president Beneš to serve as the country’s ambassador to Yugoslavia, but was forced to flee again during the Communist coup in 1948.

    After learning that he had been tried and sentenced to death in absentia[citation needed], Korbel was granted political asylum in the United States in 1949. He was hired to teach international politics at the University of Denver, and became the founding Dean of the Graduate School of International Studies. One of his students was Condoleezza Rice, the first woman appointed National Security Advisor (2001) and the first African-American woman appointed Secretary of State (2005). Korbel’s daughter, Madeleine Albright, became the first female Secretary of State (1997).

    After his death, the University of Denver established the Josef Korbel Humanitarian Award in 2000. Since then, 28 people have received it.

    The Graduate School of International Studies at the University of Denver was named the Josef Korbel School of International Studies on May 28, 2008.

    [edit] Artwork ownership controversyPhilipp Harmer, an Austrian citizen, filed a lawsuit claiming that Josef Korbel’s family is in inappropriate possession of artwork belonging to his great-grandfather, a German entrepreneur Karl Nebrich. Like most other ethnic Germans living in Czechoslovakia, Nebrich and his family were expelled from the country under the postwar “Beneš decrees”, and left behind artwork and furniture in an apartment subsequently given to Korbel’s family, before they also were forced to flee the country.

  10. Renee says:

    Now let’s add Poland and Bohemian areas.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_I_of_Austria
    Charles I of Austria or Charles IV of Hungary (Karl Franz Joseph Ludwig Hubert Georg Otto Marie; 17 August 1887 – 1 April 1922) was, among other titles, the last ruler of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He was the last Emperor of Austria, the last King of Hungary,[1] the last King of Bohemia and Croatia and the last King of Galicia and Lodomeria and the last monarch of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine. He reigned as Charles I as Emperor of Austria and Charles IV as King of Hungary from 1916 until 1918, when he “renounced participation” in state affairs, but did not abdicate. He spent the remaining years of his life attempting to restore the monarchy until his death in 1922. Following his beatification by the Catholic Church, he has become commonly known as Blessed Charles of Austria.
    Spouse Zita of Bourbon-Parma
    Issue
    Otto, Crown Prince of Austria
    Archduchess Adelheid
    Robert, Archduke of Austria-Este
    Archduke Felix
    Archduke Karl Ludwig
    Archduke Rudolf
    Archduchess Charlotte
    Archduchess Elisabeth

    House House of Habsburg-Lorraine
    Father Archduke Otto Franz
    Mother Princess Maria Josepha of Saxony
    Born (1887-08-17)17 August 1887
    Persenbeug-Gottsdorf,
    Austria-Hungary
    Died 1 April 1922(1922-04-01) (aged 34)
    Madeira, Portuguese Republic
    Burial Igreja Nossa Senhora do Monte, Madeira
    Heart buried in Muri Abbey, Switzerland

  11. Renee says:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Habsburg
    The House of Habsburg (pron.: /ˈhæps.bɜrɡ/; German pronunciation: [ˈhaːps.bʊʁk]), also Hapsburg,[1] and also known as House of Austria is one of the most important royal houses of Europe and is best known for being an origin of all of the formally elected Holy Roman Emperors between 1438 and 1740, as well as rulers of the Austrian Empire and Spanish Empire and several other countries.

    The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built around 1020–1030 in present day Switzerland by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who chose to name his fortress Habsburg. His grandson, Otto II, was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding “von Habsburg” to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries.

    By 1276, Count Radbot’s seventh generation descendant, Rudolph of Habsburg, had moved the family’s power base from Habsburg Castle to the Archduchy of Austria. Rudolph had become King of Germany/Holy Roman Emperor in 1273, and the dynasty of the House of Habsburg was truly entrenched in 1276 when Rudolph became sovereign ruler of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled for the next six centuries.

    A series of dynastic marriages[2] enabled the family to vastly expand its domains, to include Burgundy, Spain, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories into the inheritance. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Habsburg Spain and the junior Habsburg Monarchy branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II in 1700 and was replaced by the Anjou branch of the House of Bourbon in the person of his great-nephew Philip V.

    The Austrian branch went extinct in the male person in 1740 with the death of Charles VI and in the female person in 1780 with the death of his daughter Maria Theresa and was succeeded by the Vaudemont branch of the House of Lorraine in the person of her son Joseph II. The new successor house styled itself formally as House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen), although it was often referred to as simply the House of Habsburg.

  12. Renee says:

    Austrian branch went extinct and picks up here:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Lorraine
    The House of Lorraine, the main and now only remaining line known as Habsburg-Lorraine, is one of the most important and was one of the longest-reigning royal houses in the history of Europe.[1] Currently the house is headed by Karl Habsburg-Lothringen, the titular Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, Galicia and Lodomeria, Illyria, as well as the titular King of Jerusalem.
    House of Ardennes–MetzThe house claims descent from Gerard I of Paris (Count of Paris) (died 779) whose immediate descendants are known as the Girardides. The Matfridings of the 10th century are thought to have been a branch of the family;[3] at the turn of the 10th century they were Counts of Metz and ruled a set of lordships in Alsace and Lorraine. The Renaissance dukes of Lorraine tended to arrogate to themselves claims to Carolingian ancestry, as illustrated by Alexandre Dumas, père in the novel La Dame de Monsoreau (1846);[4] in fact, so little documentation survives on the early generations that the reconstruction of a family tree for progenitors of the House of Alsace involves a good deal of guesswork.[3]

    What is more securely demonstrated is that in 1048 Emperor Henry III gave the Duchy of Upper Lorraine first to Adalbert of Metz and then to his brother Gerard whose successors (collectively known as the House of Alsace or the House of Châtenois) retained the duchy until the death of Charles the Bold in 1431.[5]

    [edit] Houses Vaudemont and GuiseSee also: House of Guise

    The Château du Grand Jardin in Joinville, the seat of the Counts and Dukes of Guise.After a brief interlude of 1453–1473, when the duchy passed in right of Charles’s daughter to her husband John of Calabria, a Capetian, Lorraine reverted to the House of Vaudemont, a junior branch of House of Lorraine, in the person of René II who later added to his titles that of Duke of Bar.[6]

    The French Wars of Religion saw the rise of a junior branch of the Lorraine royal family, the House of Guise, which became a dominant force in French politics and, during the later years of Henri III’s reign, was on the verge of succeeding to the throne of France.[7] Mary of Guise, mother of Mary, Queen of Scots, also came from this family.

    Under the Bourbon monarchy the remaining branch of the House of Guise, headed by the duc d’Elbeuf, remained part of the highest ranks of French aristocracy, while the senior branch of the House of Vaudemont continued to rule the independent duchies of Lorraine and Bar. Louis XIV’s imperialist ambitions (which involved the occupation of Lorraine in 1669–97) forced the dukes into a permanent alliance with his archenemies, the Holy Roman Emperors from the House of Habsburg.

    [edit] House of Habsburg-LorraineSee also: House of Hohenberg

    The coat of arms of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine. The shield displays the marshaled arms of the Habsburg, Babenberg and Lorraine families.Following the failure of both Emperor Joseph I and Emperor Charles VI to produce a son and heir, the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 left the throne to the latter’s yet unborn daughter, Maria Theresa. In 1736 Emperor Charles arranged her marriage to Francis of Lorraine who agreed to exchange his hereditary lands for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany (as well as Duchy of Teschen from the Emperor).

    At Charles’s death in 1740 the Habsburg lands passed to Maria Theresa and Francis, who was later elected Holy Roman Emperor as Francis I. The Habsburg-Lorraine nuptials and dynastic union precipitated, and survived, the War of the Austrian Succession. Francis and Maria Theresa’s daughters Marie Antoinette and Maria Carolina became Queens of France and Naples-Sicily, respectively; while their sons Joseph II and Leopold II succeeded to the imperial title.

    Apart from the core Habsburg dominions, including the triple crowns of Austria, Hungary, and Bohemia, several junior branches of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine reigned in the Italian duchies of Tuscany (until 1860), Parma (until 1847) and Modena (until 1859). Another member of the house, Archduke Maximilian of Austria, was Emperor of Mexico (1863–67).

    In 1900, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria (then heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne) contracted a morganatic marriage with Countess Sophie Chotek. Their descendants, known as the House of Hohenberg, have been excluded from succession to the Austrian-Hungarian crown, but not that of Lorraine, where morganatic marriage has never been outlawed. Nevertheless, Otto von Habsburg, the eldest grandson of Franz Ferdinand’s younger brother, was universally regarded as the current head of the house.[8] It was at Nancy, the former capital of the House of Vaudemont, that the crown prince married Princess Regina of Saxe-Meiningen in 1951.[2]

    [edit] Family treeThis is a family tree of the House of Lorraine. It ranges from the foundation of the Longwy dynasty, in 1047, to the abdication of Francis III of Lorraine in 1737.

    See also: Lorraine

    Francis of Lorraine with his family.The genealogical history of the house is securely documented from the early 11th century but may tentatively be traced in male line to the 8th century:[3]

    Gerard, Duke of Lorraine, c. 1028–1070
    Theodoric II, Duke of Lorraine, c. 1055–1115
    Simon I, Duke of Lorraine, c. 1080–1138
    Matthias I, Duke of Lorraine, c. 1110–1176
    Frederick I, Duke of Lorraine, c. 1140–1207
    Frederick II, Duke of Lorraine, c. 1165–1213
    Matthias II, Duke of Lorraine, c. 1192–1251
    Frederick III, Duke of Lorraine, c. 1230–1303
    Theobald II, Duke of Lorraine, c. 1260–1312
    Frederick IV, Duke of Lorraine, 1282–1328
    Rudolph, Duke of Lorraine, c. 1310–1346
    John I, Duke of Lorraine, 1346–1390
    Frederick of Lorraine, 1346–1390
    Antoine of Vaudémont, c. 1395–1431
    Frederick II of Vaudémont, 1417–1470
    René II, Duke of Lorraine, 1451–1508
    Antoine, Duke of Lorraine, 1489–1544
    Francis I, Duke of Lorraine, 1517–1545
    Charles III, Duke of Lorraine, 1543–1608
    Francis II, Duke of Lorraine, 1572–1632
    Nicholas II, Duke of Lorraine, 1609–1679
    Charles V, Duke of Lorraine, 1643–1690
    Leopold, Duke of Lorraine, 1679–1729
    Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, 1708–1765
    Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor, 1747–1792
    Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, 1768–1835
    Archduke Franz Karl of Austria, 1802–1878
    Archduke Charles Louis of Austria, 1833–1896
    Archduke Otto Francis of Austria, 1865–1906
    Blessed Charles I of Austria, 1887–1922
    Crown Prince Otto von Habsburg, 1912–2011
    Karl Habsburg-Lothringen, 1961–
    Ferdinand Zvonimir Habsburg-Lothringen, 1997–

  13. Renee says:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Guise
    The House of Guise was a French ducal family, partly responsible for the French Wars of Religion.

    The Guises were Catholic, and Henry Guise wanted to end growing Calvinist influence. The assassination of Guise heightened passions and inspired Catholic attacks on Huguenots and their culture.

    The House of Guise was founded as a cadet branch of the House of Lorraine by Claude of Lorraine, first Duke of Guise (1496–1550), who entered French service and was made a duke by King Francis I. The family’s high rank was due not to possession of the Guise dukedom but to their membership in a sovereign dynasty, which procured for them the rank of prince étranger at the royal court of France. Claude’s daughter, Mary of Guise (1515–1560), married King James V of Scotland and was mother of Mary, Queen of Scots. Claude’s eldest son, Francis, became a military hero thanks to his capture of Calais from the English in 1558, while another son, Charles became Archbishop of Reims and a Cardinal in the Catholic Church.

    In 1558, the Dauphin Francis married Mary, Queen of Scots. When the sickly young man became king after his father’s death in 1559, the queen’s uncles, the Duke of Guise and his brother the Cardinal of Lorraine, controlled French politics during his short reign. This prompted the Amboise conspiracy in which the Huguenots and the House of Bourbon plotted to usurp the power of the House of Guise. The Cardinal of Lorraine was also leader of the French representatives at the final sittings of the Council of Trent, and, ironically given his family’s role in French politics, had fought for a greater willingness to compromise with Protestantism than the Italian and Spanish delegates.

    Championing Catholicism against the Huguenots, in 1560, the Guise family brutally put down the Conspiracy of Amboise. After King Francis’ death they opposed the more tolerant policy of the Regent, Catherine de’ Medici, and their doings provoked the French Wars of Religion.

    The Duke Francis helped to defeat the Huguenots at the Battle of Dreux, but he was assassinated shortly afterward, in 1563. His son, Henry of Guise, became the third Duke of Guise (1550–1588). He helped plan the infamous St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre and was responsible for the formation of the Catholic League. The death of the royal heir-presumptive, the Duc d’Anjou, in 1584, which made the Protestant King Henry of Navarre heir to the French throne, led to a new civil war, the War of the Three Henries, with King Henry III of France, King Henry IV of France (or Henry of Navarre), and Henry of Guise all fighting for control of France. Guise began the war by declaring the unacceptability of Navarre as King of France, and his control of the powerful Catholic League soon forced the French king to follow in his wake. Immensely ambitious, in 1588 Guise, with Spanish support, instigated a revolt against the king, taking control of the city of Paris and becoming the de facto ruler.

    After an apparent conciliation between the French king and the duke, in December of 1588 King Henry III had both the Duke of Guise and his brother, Louis of Lorraine, Cardinal of Guise (1555–1588), murdered during a meeting in the Royal Chateau at Blois. Leadership of the Catholic League fell to their brother, Charles of Lorraine, Duke of Mayenne, who was commander of the armed forces of the Catholic League.

    The Duke of Mayenne’s nephew, the young Duke of Guise, Charles, was proposed by the Catholic League as a candidate for the throne, possibly through a marriage to Philip II of Spain’s daughter Isabella, the granddaughter of Henry II of France. The Catholic League was eventually defeated, but for the sake of the country King Henry IV bought peace with Mayenne, and in January 1596 a treaty was signed that put an end to the League.

    After this, the House of Guise receded from its prominent position in French politics, and the senior line of the Dukes of Guise became extinct in 1688. The vast estates and title were disputed and diverted by various relatives, although several junior branches of the family (Dukes of Mayenne, Dukes of Elbeuf, etc.) kept the male line extant until 1825. Thereafter, the only surviving male branch of the House of Lorraine was the seniormost branch, which had exhcanged the sovereign duchy of Lorraine for that of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, holding sovereignty as the Habsburg-Lorraine Emperors of Austria-Hungary into the 20th century.

    The title Duke of Guise was awarded to a branch of the House of Bourbon, whence it passed to that of the House of Orléans, whose head even took it as his title of pretence to the former crown of France.

    [edit] External links “House of Guise”. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
    [edit] Dukes of GuiseSee Duke of Guise for a list. See Duchess of Guise for a list their wives.

    [edit] Other members of the House of GuiseCharles of Guise, Cardinal of Lorraine (1527–1574)
    Charles II of Guise-Lorraine, Duke of Elbeuf
    Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=House_of_Guise&oldid=528982060”

  14. Renee says:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rysy
    Rysy (Slovak: Rysy, Polish pronunciation: [ˈrɨsɨ]; German: Meeraugspitze, Hungarian: Tengerszem-csúcs) is a mountain in the crest of the High Tatras, lying on the border between Poland and Slovakia. Rysy has three peaks: the middle at 2,503 m (8,212 ft); the north-western at 2,499 m (8,199 ft); and the south-eastern at 2,473 m (8,114 ft). The north-western peak is the highest point of Poland; the other two peaks are on the Slovak side of the border, in the Prešov Region.

    Experts assume that the Polish and Slovak name Rysy, meaning “scratches” or “crevices”, refers to a series of gullies, either those on the western slopes of Żabie Ridge or the very prominent 500 m (1,600 ft) high gully and numerous smaller ones on the northern side. A folk explanation on the Slovak side says that the name comes from the plural word rysy meaning “lynxes”, although the habitat of the lynx does not extend above the timberline.

    The Hungarian name Tengerszem-csúcs and the German name Meeraugspitze mean “eye-of-the-sea peak”, from the glacial lake at the northern foot of the mountain, called “eye of the sea” (Morskie Oko in Polish).

    [edit] HistoryThe first known ascent was made in 1840, by Ede Blásy and his guide Ján Ruman-Driečny, Sr. The first winter ascent was completed in 1884, by Theodor Wundt and Jakob Horvay. In the 20th century, the communist authorities used to forward the undocumented supposition that Vladimir Lenin climbed the mountain sometime in the early 1910s.

    [edit] Tourism
    A colourful outhouse of Chata pod RysamiRysy is the highest peak in the Tatra Mountains that is accessible to individual tourists on foot without a mountain guide. It is possible to ascend the peak from the Slovak side, starting at Štrbské pleso and passing Chata pod Rysmi, a mountain chalet at an altitude of 2,250 m (7,380 ft), open during the summer season (May–October). The mountain can also be ascended from the Polish side coming from the Morskie Oko lake, which is a harder and steeper route. In the period November 1 – June 15, the trail on the Slovak side is closed.

    The former border crossing at the summit.The border can be crossed between 16 June and 31 October – for only in this period is the trail open on the Slovak side. Since the accession of Poland and Slovakia to the Schengen Agreement in 2007, however, the border between the two countries may be easily crossed at this point like at any other. Note, however, that despite the absence of border controls, when travelling from one to another European Union country, you need to carry with you some sort of identity document (ID card or passport).

  15. Renee says:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rysy

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kwame_Nkrumah

    His wife (Relative of Gamal Naser of Egypt)
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fathia_Nkrumah
    Fathia Nkrumah (pron.: /nərˈkrʊˈmɑr/ nər-KRUU-MAR) (February 22, 1932 – May 31, 2007);[1][2] born Fathia Rizk; Arabic: فتحية رزق‎), was an Egyptian and the First Lady of the newly independent Ghana as the wife of the Osagyefo Kwame Nkrumah, its first president.

    Fathia Nkrumah was born and brought up in Zeitoun, a district of Cairo to a Coptic family. She was the third daughter of a civil servant who died early and Fathia was raised by her mother single-handedly after her husband’s death.

    Kwame and Helena Fathia Rizk’s close friends:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W._E._B._Du_Bois
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shirley_Graham_Du_Bois

  16. Renee says:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zakopane

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zadora_coat_of_arms

    Zadora – is a Polish Coat of Arms. It was used by several szlachta families in the times of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

    bearersNotable bearers of this Coat of Arms include:

    Przedbor z Brzezia
    Zbigniew z Brzezia
    Mykolas Kęsgaila
    Stanislovas Kęsgaila
    Przecław Lanckoroński
    Stanisław Lanckoroński
    Mikołaj Lanckoroński z Brzezia
    Rumbaudas Valimantaitis
    Michał Szweycer
    Wojciech Łączkowski
    Paweł Łączkowski

    Płomień, Płomienie
    Earliest mention 1404
    Towns none
    Families 97 names altogether: Alantsy, Andruszkiewicz, Bakiewicz, Bakium, Balcerowski, Balicki, Bartosz, Bartoszewicz, Bartoszewski, Bąk, Bernat, Bicharu, Borchowski, Borski, Brochowski, Brohomir, Chrząstowski, Ciecharzewski, Ciesielski, Cimiński, Ciszewski, Dobczyński, Dołholewski, Dowgiałło, Dowgiało, Gorlicki, Hauntal, Hawnulewicz, Jaśkowski, Jawno, Jawnuta, Karwacjan, Karwaczian, Krok-Paszkowski, Krzeczowski, Krzetowski, Krzętowski, Lanckoroński, Langiert, Lechnicki, Lenc, Lenczewski, Lenczowski, Leniec, Lubomelski, Łączkowic, Łączkowski, Marszałkiewicz, Marszałkowicz, Narbut, Narbutt, Niwicki, Paczkowski, Paskucki, Paskudzki, Paszkowicz, Paszkowski, Paszkudzki, Pigatz, Płuksnia, Płuksnio, Prondzyński, Przecławski, Rosperski, Rospierski, Roszecki, Roszocki, Rozperski, Rusakowski, Rusocki, Russakowski, Russocki, Rwocki, Salame, Samotyja, Siekierzyński, Skwarzyński, Stołtonos, Stryk, Strykowski, Strzyszka, Strzyżewski, Szułdrzyński, Szwejcer, Walter, Włodzisławski, Wodzisławski, Wojeński, Wrzeszcz, Zadora, Zadroski, Zawisza, Zimiński, Zuzelski, Zużelski, Życieński, Życiński, Żyniecki

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Szlachta

  17. Renee says:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piast_dynasty
    This article is about a Polish dynasty. For its semi-legendary founder, see Piast the Wheelwright. For Polish football club, see Piast Gliwice. For Brewery, see Piast Brewery.
    House of Piast
    Country Poland, Duchy of Mazovia, Duchy of Silesia, and several Duchies of Silesia
    Titles Duke of the Polans, Duke of Poland, King of Poland, King of Rus’, Duke of Mazovia, Duke of Silesia, and several other ducal titles (see Dukes of Silesia)
    Founder semi-legendary Piast, son of legendary Chościsko
    Final sovereign Casimir the Great, in the Kingdom of Poland, and George IV William, Duke of Leignitz, in the Silesian duchies
    Founding 960
    Dissolution 1370, in the Kingdom of Poland, and 1675, in the Duchies of Silesia
    Cadet branches Silesian Piasts, later became the oldest surviving branch of the dynasty
    The Piast dynasty was the first historical ruling dynasty of Poland. It began with the semi-legendary Piast Kołodziej (Piast the Wheelwright). The first historical ruler was Prince Mieszko I (tenth century). The Piasts’ royal rule in Poland ended in 1370 with the death of king Casimir the Great. Branches of the Piast dynasty continued to rule in the Duchy of Masovia and in the duchies of Silesia after 1370, until the last male Silesian Piast died in 1675. The Piasts intermarried with several noble lines of Europe, and possessed numerous titles, some within the Holy Roman Empire.

    Although the early dukes and kings of Poland regarded themselves as descendants of Piast, the term “Piast Dynasty” originated in the 17th century.[1][2]

    [edit] History of the dynastyPiast Kołodziej (Piast the Wheelwright), the legendary founder of the Piast dynasty, is first mentioned in the Cronicae et gesta ducum sive principum Polonorum (Chronicles and deeds of the dukes or princes of the Poles) of Gallus Anonymus, written c. 1113. The last ruling Piast George William of Brzeg and Legnica died in 1675, although numerous families link their genealogy to the Piasts. His son August of Legnica, the last legitimate male Silesian Piast, died in 1679.

    About 1295 Przemysł II used as a coat of arms with a white eagle – a symbol later referred to as the Piast coat of arms (see depiction) or as the Piast Eagle.[3]

    For more information about the history of Poland under the Piasts, see History of Poland (966–1385).

    Piast kings and rulers of Poland appear in list form in the following table. For a list of all rulers, see List of Polish monarchs.

    Name Reigned
    Siemowit/Ziemowit (semi-legendary) 9th – 10th century
    Lestko/Leszek (semi-legendary) 9th – 10th century
    Siemomysł/Ziemomysł (semi-legendary) 10th c.–ca.960
    Mieszko I (first historical ruler, see Dagome Iudex) ca.960–92
    Bolesław I of Poland (the Brave) 992–1025
    Mieszko II Lambert 1025–34
    Bezprym 1031
    Casimir the Restorer 1034–58
    Boleslaus II the Bold 1058–79
    Władysław of Poland 1079–1102
    Zbigniew and Bolesław the Wry-mouthed 1102–07
    Bolesław the Wry-mouthed 1107–38
    Władysław II the Exile 1138–46
    Bolesław the Curly 1146–73
    Mieszko the Old 1173–77
    Casimir the Just 1177–94
    Leszek the White and Władysław Spindleshanks 1194–1202
    Władysław Spindleshanks 1202
    Leszek the White 1202–10
    Mieszko Tanglefoot 1210–11
    Leszek the White 1211–27
    Władysław Spindleshanks 1228
    Konrad of Masovia 1229–32
    Henry the Bearded 1232–38
    Henry the Pious 1238–41
    Konrad of Masovia 1241–43
    Bolesław the Chaste 1243–79
    Leszek the Black 1279–88
    Henry IV Probus 1288–90
    Przemysl II 1290–91
    Władysław the Elbow-high 1306–33
    Casimir the Great 1333–70
    [edit] See alsoBolesław the Forgotten
    List of Polish rulers
    Dukes of Silesia and Silesian Piasts
    Dukes of Masovia
    Dukes of Greater Poland
    Dukes of Cuiavia
    Dukes of Leczyca
    Dukes of Sieradz
    Poland during the Piast dynasty
    Category:House of Piast
    Wawel

    Country Poland, Duchy of Mazovia, Duchy of Silesia, and several Duchies of Silesia
    Titles Duke of the Polans, Duke of Poland, King of Poland, King of Rus’, Duke of Mazovia, Duke of Silesia, and several other ducal titles (see Dukes of Silesia)
    Founder semi-legendary Piast, son of legendary Chościsko
    Final sovereign Casimir the Great, in the Kingdom of Poland, and George IV William, Duke of Leignitz, in the Silesian duchies
    Founding 960
    Dissolution 1370, in the Kingdom of Poland, and 1675, in the Duchies of Silesia
    Cadet branches Silesian Piasts, later became the oldest surviving branch of the dynasty

  18. Renee says:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jewish_community_of_Danzig
    The Jewish Community of Gdańsk (Danzig) dates back at least to the 15th century. For many centuries it was separated from the rest of the city. Under Polish rule, Jews acquired limited rights in the city in the 16th and 17th centuries. After the incorporation into Prussia the community largely assimilated to German culture. Between the two world wars, during the period of the Free City of Danzig persecution of Jews in the region intensified after the Nazis came to power. During World War II and the Holocaust the community was virtually eliminated; currently it counts around 100 members and the city hosts an annual festival of Jewish culture.

    A Jewish community in Danzig proper did not exist until the 15th century.[1][2][3] The earliest records indicate that Jews were present in Gdańsk as early as 11th century.[4] In 1308 Gdańsk was taken over by the Teutonic Knights and a year later, the Grand Master of the Order, Siegfried von Feuchtwangen, forbid Jews to settle or remain in the city in an edict of non-toleration (“de non tolerandis Judaeis”). The knights weakened the restriction in early 15th century under pressure from the Grand Duke of Lithuania, Witold, and as a result a limited number of Jewish merchants from Lithuania and Volhynia were allowed to come to Danzig.[5] Around 1440 a “Judengasse” (“Jewish Lane”, modern Spichrzowa) and around 1454 a Jewish settlement existed.[6]

    After the end of the Thirteen Years’ War the city returned to Poland and Jewish merchants came to trade from all over Poland and Lithuania. Many of them received special privileges from the King of Poland in regards to both the internal (along the Vistula river) as well as trans-Baltic trade. Others acted as agents of the szlachta (Polish nobility) in commercial matters.[5]

    In 1476, on the initiative of the King of Poland, Casimir IV Jagiellon the city council allowed two Jewish merchants to have equal rights with other merchants.[6] Danzig’s semi-autonomous status within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth however allowed the city to refuse citizenship and trading rights to outsiders, thus the rights of Jews in the Kingdom did not apply in Danzig (similar restrictions also applied to Scots and Mennonites, many of whom also settled around the city).[5][1] On the insistence of local merchants, Jews had to move to the Schottland suburb outside of the city’s boundary in 1520, subsequently Jews also settled in other places outside of the jurisdiction of the city.

    The city burghers continued to curtail the rights of Jews in the city throughout the 16th century, particularly in regards to trade. This was opposed by the Jewish merchants through a boycott of the Danzig owned banking house in Kowno (which had to be closed down) and through the intercession of the Polish Kings on behalf of the Council of the Four Lands.[6]

    In 1577, Danzig rebelled against the election of Stephen Báthory as King of Poland and an inconclusive siege of the city commenced. The negotiations that finally broke the stalemate included concessions by the Polish king in religious matters that also concerned Jews. Jewish religious services were not allowed in the city and in 1595 the city council again permitted sojourns only during the fair days. In the 1620s Jewish merchants were allowed to stay for the Domenic Fair and remain 4 days after its closure.[7]

    At the beginning of the 17th century, almost half a thousand Jews lived in the city and, in 1620, King Zygmunt III Waza enforced an edict permitting the Jews to live within the city. A few years later, Jews were allowed to trade in grain and timber, first in one part of the city, then all of it.[6]

    In 1752 a city ordinance regulated a tax of 12 Florin per month for a Jewish merchant, 8 Florin for an assistant and a 4 Florin for a servant.[1] 50 Jewish families received citizenship in 1773 and 160 Jews were allowed to reside in the city.[6]

    [edit] Kingdom of PrussiaThe situation changed with the First partition of Poland in 1772, when the suburbs became Prussian while the city of Danzig remained part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth until 1793. The 240 Jewish families (1,257 persons) of the Danzig suburbs received a General-Privilege in August 1773, which guaranteed their legal status. As Gershon C. Bacon states[1]:

    This was the beginning of the association of Danzig Jewry with Germany, the German economy and German culture, which lasted until the dissolution of the community in the Nazi era.

    Although the emancipation edict of 1812 improved the legal status of Jews in Prussia, anti-Jewish riots happened in 1819 and 1821 and the legal rights of Jews were often questioned by local officials.[6][1]

    Great SynagogueIn the 19th century the communities of Altschottland (modern Stary Szkoty), Weinberg (modern Winnicka), Langfuhr (modern Wrzeszcz), Danzig-Breitgasse (modern Szeroka) and Danzig-Mattenbuden (modern Szopy) were still independent and elected their own officers, built synagogues, ran charitable institutions and chose their own rabbis. The Altschottland community started an initiative to unify the Jews of Danzig in 1878. A committee was established in 1880 and in February 1883 elections were held for a unified Kehilla board. In 1887 the new founded Synagogen-Gemeinde (Synagogue-kehilla) opened the Great Synagogue. Danzig Jewry at that time was a liberal, German-Jewish community and most Danzig Jews considered themselves “Germans of the Mosaic persuasion” and spoke German.[1][8]

    Many Danzig Jews volunteered for military service in World War I,[3] about 95 of them died in service, a memorial plaque was later displayed in the Great Synagogue and shipped to New York’s Jewish Museum in 1939.[1]

    [edit] Free City of DanzigAfter World War I Danzig became a Free City under the protection of the League of Nations. The number of Jews in Danzig grew rapidly as visa restrictions did not exist and many Jews from the areas attached to Poland after World War I, the Second Polish Republic and refugees of the Russian Civil War settled here or were awaiting visas for the US or Canada.[1]

    Danzig Jewry, aided by the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee and the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society took care for these refugees, which were housed in a transit camp in the port area.[6] Between 1920 and 1925 some 60,000 Jews passed through Danzig. The influence of Eastern European Jews, often sympathizing with Zionism, caused tensions within Synagogengemeinde Danzig. Besides the traditional Centralverein Danziger Staatsbürger jüdischen Glaubens (CV; Central Association of Danzig Citizens of Jewish Faith), led by Bernhard Kamnitzer, Jews from Russia and Poland founded the new “OSE” association, which also provided for charitable services such as a kindergarten, a public soup kitchen, a clothing store, occupational counselling, and a job service, as well as for a theatre for the people’s edification and entertainment.

    The OSE further ran a health centre in the former Friedländersche Schule on Jakobstor street #13. The native Jews tried to maintain their German-Liberal style community and their leadership made several attempts to restrict the participation of foreigners in the election of the Repräsentantenversammlung (legislative assembly of representatives) of Synagogengemeinde Danzig.[1] However, naturalised immigrants could vote so that also proponents of “Agudas Jisro’el” and “Misrachi”, forming Jüdische Volkspartei (Yiddish: ייִדישע פֿאָלקספּאַרטײַ; Polish: fołkspartaj) ran for seats and eventually won some.

    In 1920 the “Jung-Jüdischer Bund Danzig” (Young-Jewish Association Danzig) was founded, a newspaper, the Jüdisches Wochenblatt (Jewish weekly), was published from 1929 to 1938[6] as well as the Zionist Danziger Echo (until 1936).

    A new synagogue was built on Mirchauer Weg in Langfuhr (Wrzeszcz) in 1927.[9] In 1931 the first world conference of the Betar was organized in Danzig.[10]

    [edit] Persecution
    Great Synagogue in spring 1939. The banner reads “Come, lovely May, and free us from the Jews”In the 1920s and early 1930s anti-Semitism grew and the local Nazi party took power in the Volkstag (parliament) elections of 1933 and 1935. The Nazis took over the government in 1933 and as a result Jews were dismissed from public service and discriminated against in public life.[11][12] The presence of the League of Nations’ High Commissioner however still guaranteed a minimum of legal certainty. In summer 1933 an “Association of Jewish Academics” was founded, which protested against the discrimination of Jews to the Senate and the League of Nations. Though the League declared several acts of the Nazi-government unconstitutional, this had no effect on the actual situation in the Free City. Following the example of the Jüdischer Kulturbund in Berlin a similar association existed since September 1933.[11]

    In October 1937 a Pogrom was initiated, which caused the flight of about the half of the Jewish community within a year.[6][11] In 1938, the Nazi Party’s Gauleiter of the city, Albert Forster, initiated an official policy of repression against Jews; Jewish businesses were seized and handed over by Gentile Danzigers, Jews were forbidden to attend theaters, cinemas, public baths and swimming pools, or stay in hotels within the city, and, with the approval of the city’s senate, barred from the medical, legal and notary professions. Jews from Zoppot (Sopot) were forced to leave that city within the Danzig state territory.[5] The Kristallnacht riots in Germany were followed by similar riots between 12 and 14 November 1938. The Synagogues in Langfuhr, Mattenbuden, and Zoppot were destroyed and the Great Synagogue was only saved because Jewish war veterans guarded the building.[1]

    Following these riots the Nazi senate (government) introduced the racialist Nuremberg laws in November 1938[11][13] and the Jewish community decided to organize its emigration.[6][14] All property, including the Synagogues and cemeteries, was sold to finance the emigration of the Danzig Jewry.[2] The Great Synagogue on Reitbahn street was taken over by the municipal administration and torn down in May 1939. The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee paid up to $50,000[14] for the ceremonial objects, books, scrolls, tapestries, textiles and all kind of memorabilia, which arrived at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America on 26 July 1939. The extensive collection of Lesser Giełdziński was also shipped to New York, where it was placed at the Jewish museum.[2][5]

    [edit] HolocaustIn early 1939 about 3,500 Jews, most of them Danzig citizens, were still living in the city. In March 1939 the first transport to Palestine departed[11] and by September 1939 barely 1,700, mostly elderly, Jews remained.

    After the invasion of Poland by Wehrmacht and SS Heimwehr Danzig, followed by the German annexation of Danzig Free City, about 130 Jews were held in a “ghetto” in a building on Milchkannengasse street (today’s ulica Stagiewna), and another group was imprisoned, along with the city’s Poles, at the Victoriaschule, an old gymnasium building, were they were beaten and tortured. There were also camps at Westerplatte and Ohra (modern Orunia). Jews from Zoppot were executed in the Piaśnica forest murders. In 1940 another ghetto was created, which held about 600 individuals.[5]

    The last group that managed to leave for Palestine departed in August 1940, with many of them facing the Patria disaster in Haifa port.[6][11] Of those who remained, 395 were deported during February and March 1941 to Warsaw Ghetto and 200 from the Jewish old age home were sent to Theresienstadt[6] and Auschwitz. Some were also taken out into the Baltic sea on barges and drowned.[5]

    At the end of World War II 22 Jewish partners of mixed marriages, who had remained in the city, survived.[6] About 350 individuals, from the areas surrounding the city, reported to the regional offices of the Central Committee of Polish Jews in the summer of 1945.[5]

    [edit] Present dayJewish life in Gdańsk began to revive as soon as the war was over. Jewish committees were organized within the city and region. In particular the Regional Jewish Committee (Okręgowy Komitet Żydowski) was composed of members of Ichud, Poale Zion and Poale Zion-Left members, as well as the Polish Communist Party. Members of the Bund however were excluded and not allowed to join by the Communist authorities. The religious organization Jewish Religious Organization of the (Pomeranian) Voivodeship (Wojewódzkie Żydowskie Zrzeszenie Religijne) was created in October 1945 and reacquired the synagogue in Wrzeszcz in the same year. However, the religious life of Gdańsk’s Jews was slow during this time, partly because a good portion of those present in the city were non-religious and partly because of general anti-religious persecutions carried out by the Stalinist regime during the period 1947–53.[5]

    During the March 1968 events, a major student and intellectual protests against the communist government of the People’s Republic of Poland, the communist authorities instigated a wave of antisemitism as part of a “anti-Zionist” campaign. Jews of Gdańsk were also affected, as exemplified by the repressions directed at Wiktor Taubenfigiel, the director of the Gdańsk hospital.[5] Jakub Szadaj, a native of Gdańsk involved in Jewish cultural activities in the city and a prominent member of the democratic anti-communist opposition, was also arrested and sentenced to ten years in prison (later commuted to five). Szadaj was exonerated of all charges in post-Communist Poland in 1992.[15] An exhibit of photographs and documents entitled “Marzec ’68” (March ’68) covering the events was held in the Great Synagogue in 2010.[16] However the general subject of what impact the events of 1968 had on the Jewish community in Gdańsk has not yet been studied extensively.[5]

    According to the In Your Pocket City Guide no member of the contemporary Jewish community is a descended of a prewar resident.[4] However, Jakub Szadaj, for example, is the son of Moses Szadaj, a citizen of the pre war Free City of Danzig.[15]

    An annual festival, the Baltic Days of Jewish Culture (Bałtyckie Dni Kultury Żydowskiej), has been taking place in Gdańsk since 1999. It is organized by Social and Cultural Organization of Jews in Poland (Towarzystwo Społeczno-Kulturalne Żydów w Polsce) and Jakub Szadaj.[17][18]

    New Synagogue in Gdańsk-WrzeszczIn 2001 the only remaining pre-war synagogue, used as a warehouse for store furniture and as music school after World War II, was transferred to the Jewish community. Since September 2009 the complete “New Synagogue” serves for religious purposes again.[19] A photo exhibit “Żydzi gdańscy—Obrazy nieistniejącego świata” (Jews of Gdańsk—Images of a lost world) was held in the Opatów Palace in Oliwa in 2008. The exhibition included more than 200 photographs documenting the history of the Jewish community in the city from the end of the 19th century until 1968.[20]

    The Independent Gmina of the Mosaic Faith (Niezależna Gmina Wyznania Mojżeszowego) represents about 100 Jews in the city,[21] mostly from Progressive Judaism. In addition to helping with the organization of the Baltic Days of Jewish Culture, it offers Hebrew lessons and keeps contact with the Beit Warszawa congregation in Warsaw.

  19. Renee says:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opat%C3%B3w_Palace
    The Abbots’ Palace in Oliwa (Polish: Pałac Opatów w Oliwie)[1] is a roccoco palace in Oliwa, a quarter of Gdańsk (Danzig). The first portion of the palace, the “Old Palace” was constructed in the 15th century. Later, in the first half of the sixteen hundreds a “New Palace” was added, which served as the residency of the then abbot of the Cistercians, Jan Grabiński. The final additions to the palace were made between 1754 and 1756, and were funded by another Cisterian abbot, Jacek Rybiński.[2]

    After the partitions of Poland the area became part of Prussia, in 1831 real estate of the Cistercians was secularized and the palace became property of the House of Hohenzollern. From 1796 until 1836 the Bishops of Ermland (Warmia), Karl von Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Joseph von Hohenzollern-Hechingen resided in the Palace.[3][4] It remained empty until 1869 when Maria Anna von Hohenzollern-Hechingen, niece of Joseph, took up residence there. After her death in 1888 the ownership of the palace was taken over by the city of Oliva, which used it for offices and apartments.[5]

    During the interwar period of the Free City of Danzig the palace contained a museum which housed exhibitions on the history of the region. The director in charge of the of the museum was a Nazi activist named Erich Keyser.[5][6]

    In 1945, at the end of World War II (during which time it served as an arms depot) it was set on fire by German troops who sought to clear the terrain in front of the advancing Red Army.[5][7]

    The palace was rebuilt in 1965 through the efforts of the Muzeum Pomorskie w Gdańsku (Pomeranian Museum in Gdańsk). It initially served as the ethnographic department of the museum. In 1972 the Museum was elevated to a status of a National Museum.[5]

    Since 1989 the palace contains the Department of Modern Art of the Polish National Museum in Gdańsk. In February 1990 a special gallery devoted to contemporary Polish art was established.[5] Permanent exhibitions include works by Polish artists from 19th and 20th century (painting, sculpture and ceramics). Some of the artists whose works are on display include Zbigniew Pronaszko, Jan Cybis, Henryk Stażewski, Andrzej Wróblewski, Tadeusz Kantor, Jerzy Nowosielski, Alfred Lenica, Jacek Lebenstein, Teresa Pągowska, Zdzisław Beksiński, Edward Dwurnik and Władysław Hasior.[8] It also houses the “Promotional Gallery” which exhibits works by young artists.

  20. Renee says:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wojciech_Frykowski
    Wojciech Frykowski (Polish pronunciation: [ˈvɔjt͡ɕɛx frɨˈkɔfskʲi]; 22 December 1936 – 9 August 1969) was a Polish actor and writer who was murdered in the home of Sharon Tate and Roman Polanski by members of Charles Manson’s “Family”.

    Born in Łódź, Poland to Jan and Teofila Frykowski, Wojciech grew up in a wealthy, well-known family and was educated exclusively at the film school in Poland. He had two younger brothers Jerry and Matt. His parents owned a small textile factory in their hometown of Łódź. His younger brother Jerzy “Jerry” Frykowski is a movie producer well known in Central Europe.

    In his early years, Frykowski was a very close friend and financier of film director Roman Polanski and played the part of a thief in one of Polanski’s early Polish-made short films, Mammals, in 1962. In 1966, Frykowski moved to France, then a year later to the United States in the hope of furthering his writing career, but was not successful.

    [edit] Personal lifeIn 1958 Frykowski married Polish model Ewa Maria Morelle. The couple had a son, Bartłomiej “Bartek” Frykowski, in 1959 before divorcing.

    In 1963, he married Polish songwriter and author Agnieszka Osiecka in Zakopane, Poland. The couple divorced a year later and had no children.

    [edit] Relationship with Abigail FolgerFrykowski was in a relationship with American coffee heiress Abigail Folger. The couple met in New York City in December 1967, when Folger was introduced to him by his old friend, author Jerzy Kosiński. She gave Frykowski a tour of New York and their friendship began. At the time he had little command of English, but like Folger he was fluent in French. They fell in love while she was teaching him how to speak English.

    According to Roman Polanski’s 1984 autobiography, Folger was very good to Wojciech, paying all of the couple’s living expenses at the time. After living together for several months in her New York City apartment, the couple eventually decided to move west to Southern California. Frykowski wanted to get back financially on his feet hoping that Polanski would get him a job in the movie industry, while Folger wanted to be a social worker. In August 1968 they arrived in Los Angeles County, and they rented their first hilltop house on Woodstock Drive, in a wealthy section of Hollywood Hills, just off Mulholland Drive in Los Angeles. Their neighbor was famous singer Cass Elliot. Frykowski then introduced Folger to Roman Polanski and his wife, actress Sharon Tate. Through the Polanskis, the couple met celebrity hairdresser Jay Sebring and other people from their circle.

    The couple had been taking care of the Polanski residence since 1 April 1969 when Polanski had left for London, England to work on two different film projects. On 20 July 1969 right after Tate returned home, Frykowski and Folger agreed to remain at 10050 Cielo Drive with Tate, who was eight months pregnant, until Polański returned from Europe. Polanski was expected to return to California on August 12, 1969.

    [edit] DeathMain article: Tate murders
    In the early morning hours of 9 August 1969 just after midnight, Wojciech Frykowski and Folger were murdered, along with Sharon Tate, Jay Sebring and Steven Parent by members of Charles Manson’s “Family” who broke into the Polanski residence at 10050 Cielo Drive in Beverly Hills, California. Frykowski was shot twice, struck thirteen times over the head with a blunt object and stabbed in total 51 times. According to his killers — Charles “Tex” Watson, Patricia Krenwinkel and Susan Atkins.

    During the fight with their assailants, Frykowski and Folger escaped the house only to be overwhelmed and stabbed to death. Their bodies were discovered the next day by Sharon Tate’s housekeeper, resting not far from each other on a front lawn of the property.

    Wojciech Frykowski’s body was cremated on 22 August 1969 in Los Angeles. After a private memorial his remains were claimed by his Polish relatives and buried in the Saint Josef’s Cemetery in his native Łódź, Poland.

    [edit] AftermathFrykowski’s son, Bartłomiej, was 9-years old and living in Poland when his father was murdered in 1969.[1] In 1971, he filed a wrongful death lawsuit against Charles Manson, Patrica Krenwinkle, Susan Atkins, and Charles “Tex” Watson for damages and suffering. He won a $500,000 judgement but did not collect any money because the defendants had no assets. As required by law, Bartłomiej’s attorney renewed the lawsuit every ten years.[2]

    In 1993, Guns N’ Roses covered Manson’s song “Look at Your Game, Girl” which appeared on their album “The Spaghetti Incident?”. The album went on to sell over 2 million records worldwide.[1] In accordance with Frykowski’s lawsuit, Guns N’ Roses’ label, Geffen Records, paid Bartłomiej Frykowski Manson’s share of the royalties – $62,000 for every million copies of the album that were sold.[3] Bartłomiej later became a cinematographer. He died on 8 June 1999.

    Wojciech Frykowski
    Born (1936-12-22)22 December 1936
    Łódź, Poland
    Died 9 August 1969(1969-08-09) (aged 32)
    Los Angeles, California, U.S.
    Cause of death Homicide
    Resting place Saint Josef’s Cemetery
    Nationality Polish
    Occupation Actor, writer
    Spouse(s) Ewa Maria Morelle (1958–?)
    Agnieszka Osiecka (1963–1964)
    Children Bartłomiej “Bartek” Frykowski (1959-1999)

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sharon_Tate

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s