The Queen Of Hearts And Her Loves

©Renee 2012

Reading into family trees is very interesting and sometimes you wonder about those connections and how they pop up over and over. That circle of names…

Like the Happy Hooker for example, she loves to love…still so pretty. She had a broken engagement…

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xaviera_Hollander

Hollander was born Vera de Vries in Soerabaja, Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia), to a Dutch Jewish father, a doctor, and a mother who was of French and German descent. She spent the first three years of her life in a Japanese internment camp.

In her early 20s, she left Amsterdam for Johannesburg, South Africa, where her stepsister lived. There she met and became engaged to John Weber, an American economist. When the engagement was broken off, she left South Africa for New York.

In 1968, she left her job as the secretary of the Dutch consulate in Manhattan to become a call girl, where she made $1,000 a night. A year later she opened her own brothel called the Vertical Whorehouse and soon became New York City‘s leading madam. In 1971, she was arrested for prostitution by New York police and was forced to leave the United States.

In 1971 Hollander published a memoir, The Happy Hooker: My Own Story, Robin Moore co authored with her on this book and came up with the catchy title Happy Hooker while Yvonne Dunleavy wrote the book. The book was notable for its frankness by the standards of the time, and is considered a landmark of positive writing about sex. Hollander details in the book her life as a liberal and open-minded girl. She states that during the start of her career she did not ask for cash in exchange for sex, but her partners voluntarily gave her money and other presents.

Hollander has since written a number of other books and produced plays in Amsterdam. Her latest book, Child No More, is the heartfelt story of losing her mother. For 35 years, she wrote an advice column for Penthouse magazine called Call Me Madam. For several years in the 1970s, Hollander lived in Toronto, where she married a Canadian antique dealer and was a regular fixture in the downtown core. Again from above:

 There she met and became engaged to John Weber, an American economist. When the engagement was broken off, she left South Africa for New York.

Weber. Interesting name. Means weaver, like an old post I did on weaving change. Anyway, we go on from there.

Born Vera de Vries
(1943-06-15) June 15, 1943 (age 69)
Soerabaja, Dutch East Indies
Citizenship Netherlands

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weber

http://www.thepeerage.com/p61101.htm

http://www.thepeerage.com/p61100.htm

http://www.thepeerage.com/p43127.htm

http://thepeerage.com/p41066.htm

http://thepeerage.com/p41066.htm#i410656

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_Lloyd_Webber

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rachel_Lambert_Mellon

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constant_Lambert

http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=jweber&id=I04250

The Phillips, Weber, Kirk, & Staggs families of the Pacific Northwest.  BARONY OF LOVEL

Love:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clan_Fraser

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frasers_of_Muchalls

The Frasers of Muchal-in Mar, sometimes referred to as the Frasers of Muchalls, were a branch of the Fraser family in Scotland.

In 1366 Thomas Fraser, a descendant of Sir Alexander Fraser of Cornton brother of Sir Richard Fraser of Touch-Fraser, exchanged the lands in Petyndreich, Stirlingshire for those of Kinmundy, Aberdeenshire. His grandson Thomas exchanged the estate of Cornton for Stonywood and Muchalls in Aberdeenshire. It was presumably Thomas who erected the towerhouse stronghold overlooking the North Sea, which is now known as Muchalls Castle, having undergone expansion by the Burnetts of Leys in 1617. His descendant, Andrew Fraser, who was created Lord Fraser in 1633, completed Castle Fraser in 1636. The title became dormant following the premature death in 1716 of Charles, 4th Lord Fraser, a Jacobite who, while trying to escape from Government troops, fell over the cliffs at Pennan, near Peterhead. Castle Fraser, near Inverurie, Aberdeenshire, has been under the care of the National Trust for Scotland since 1976.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diana,_Princess_of_Wales

http://thepeerage.com/p43687.htm

http://www.thepeerage.com/p35589.htm

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41 Responses to The Queen Of Hearts And Her Loves

  1. Renee says:

    http://thepeerage.com/p55696.htm
    Frances Reade1
    F, #556956

    Frances Reade||p55696.htm#i556956|Sir Thomas Reade|b. 1575|p55694.htm#i556932|Mary Brocket||p55694.htm#i556939|Thomas Reade|b. 1 Jul 1545|p55693.htm#i556924|Mary Stonhouse||p55694.htm#i556931|||||||

    Last Edited=11 Jun 2012
    Frances Reade is the daughter of Sir Thomas Reade and Mary Brocket.2 She married Sir William Russell on 1 December 1624.1
    Her married name became Russell.
    Citations
    [S37] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 3, page 3298. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    [S37] Charles Mosley, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    Sir William Russell1
    M, #556957

    Last Edited=30 May 2012
    Sir William Russell married Frances Reade, daughter of Sir Thomas Reade and Mary Brocket, on 1 December 1624.1
    Worcs issue.1 He lived Wytley.1 He was also known as 1st Baronet (d ) [U.K. Life Peer

  2. Renee says:

    http://thepeerage.com/p47765.htm
    Captain William Henry Douglas1
    M, #477646

    Last Edited=22 Oct 2012
    Captain William Henry Douglas married Elizabeth Love Hammick, daughter of Stephen Hammick and Elizabeth Margaret Love, on 29 October 1811 at St. George, Stonehouse, Devon, England.1,2
    He gained the rank of Captain in the service of the Royal Navy.1
    Children of Captain William Henry Douglas and Elizabeth Love Hammick
    Louisa Douglas2 b. 1816
    Sophia Douglas2 b. 1817

  3. Renee says:

    http://thepeerage.com/p29514.htm
    Colin Bruce Gregor1
    M, #295131

    Last Edited=10 Jun 2008
    Colin Bruce Gregor married Merrill Kay Jones, daughter of Ivan Edward Macauley Jones and Margaret Clare Allen.1
    Citations
    [S3174] Robert Lloyd-Jones, “re: Abbott Family,” e-mail message to Darryl Roger Lundy, 3 June 2008. Hereinafter cited as “re: Abbott Family.”
    Murree Allen1
    M, #295132

    Murree Allen||p29514.htm#i295132|Frederick Thomas Allen|b. 1882\nd. 1929|p29513.htm#i295124|Eva Glover|b. 1883\nd. 1944|p29513.htm#i295125|John K. Allen|b. 1837\nd. 17 Feb 1916|p26724.htm#i267240|Phoebe J. Abbott|b. 11 Feb 1839\nd. 27 Jul 1913|p17250.htm#i172495|Charles Glover||p29513.htm#i295126|Annie Jones||p29513.htm#i295127|

    Last Edited=10 Jun 2008
    Murree Allen is the son of Frederick Thomas Allen and Eva Glover.1 He married Gladys Edna Love in 1936 at Bega, New South Wales, Australia.1
    Children of Murree Allen and Gladys Edna Love
    Keith Allen1
    John Allen1
    Citations
    [S3174] Robert Lloyd-Jones, “re: Abbott Family,” e-mail message to Darryl Roger Lundy, 3 June 2008. Hereinafter cited as “re: Abbott Family.”
    Gladys Edna Love1
    F, #295133

    Last Edited=10 Jun 2008
    Gladys Edna Love married Murree Allen, son of Frederick Thomas Allen and Eva Glover, in 1936 at Bega, New South Wales, Australia.1
    From 1936, her married name became Allen.1
    Children of Gladys Edna Love and Murree Allen
    Keith Allen1
    John Allen1
    Citations
    [S3174] Robert Lloyd-Jones, “re: Abbott Family,” e-mail message to Darryl Roger Lundy, 3 June 2008. Hereinafter cited as “re: Abbott Family.”
    Keith Allen1
    M, #295134

    Keith Allen||p29514.htm#i295134|Murree Allen||p29514.htm#i295132|Gladys Edna Love||p29514.htm#i295133|Frederick T. Allen|b. 1882\nd. 1929|p29513.htm#i295124|Eva Glover|b. 1883\nd. 1944|p29513.htm#i295125|||||||

    Last Edited=10 Jun 2008
    Keith Allen is the son of Murree Allen and Gladys Edna Love.1
    Citations
    [S3174] Robert Lloyd-Jones, “re: Abbott Family,” e-mail message to Darryl Roger Lundy, 3 June 2008. Hereinafter cited as “re: Abbott Family.”
    John Allen1
    M, #295135

    John Allen||p29514.htm#i295135|Murree Allen||p29514.htm#i295132|Gladys Edna Love||p29514.htm#i295133|Frederick T. Allen|b. 1882\nd. 1929|p29513.htm#i295124|Eva Glover|b. 1883\nd. 1944|p29513.htm#i295125|||||||

    Last Edited=10 Jun 2008
    John Allen is the son of Murree Allen and Gladys Edna Love.1
    Citations
    [S3174] Robert Lloyd-Jones, “re: Abbott Family,” e-mail message to Darryl Roger Lundy, 3 June 2008. Hereinafter cited as “re: Abbott Family.”

    Eric Allen1
    M, #295136

    Eric Allen||p29514.htm#i295136|Frederick Thomas Allen|b. 1882\nd. 1929|p29513.htm#i295124|Eva Glover|b. 1883\nd. 1944|p29513.htm#i295125|John K. Allen|b. 1837\nd. 17 Feb 1916|p26724.htm#i267240|Phoebe J. Abbott|b. 11 Feb 1839\nd. 27 Jul 1913|p17250.htm#i172495|Charles Glover||p29513.htm#i295126|Annie Jones||p29513.htm#i295127|

    Last Edited=10 Jun 2008
    Eric Allen is the son of Frederick Thomas Allen and Eva Glover.1
    Citations
    [S3174] Robert Lloyd-Jones, “re: Abbott Family,” e-mail message to Darryl Roger Lundy, 3 June 2008. Hereinafter cited as “re: Abbott Family.”
    Sarah Campbell1,2
    F, #295137, d. 1929

    Sarah Campbell|d. 1929|p29514.htm#i295137|William Campbell||p41147.htm#i411461|Anne Quirk||p41147.htm#i411462|||||||||||||

    Last Edited=13 Dec 2009
    Sarah Campbell was the daughter of William Campbell and Anne Quirk.2 She married Johnathan Abbott, son of Thomas Abbott and Eliza Jane Mills, in 1866 at Dungog, New South Wales, Australia.1 She died in 1929.2 She was buried at Dawson River Cemetery, Taree, New South Wales, Australia.2
    From 1866, her married name became Abbott.1
    Children of Sarah Campbell and Johnathan Abbott
    William Campbell Abbott+1 b. 1868, d. 1948
    Eliza Jane Abbott1 b. 1870
    Thomas J. Abbott1 b. 1872, d. 1925
    Mabel S. Abbott1 b. 1873
    Percy Manning Abbott1 b. 1882
    Citations
    [S3174] Robert Lloyd-Jones, “re: Abbott Family,” e-mail message to Darryl Roger Lundy, 3 June 2008. Hereinafter cited as “re: Abbott Family.”
    [S4374] Thomas Campbell, “re: Abbott Family,” e-mail message to Darryl Roger LUNDY (101053), 13 December 2009. Hereinafter cited as “re: Abbott Family.”
    William Campbell Abbott1
    M, #295138, b. 1868, d. 1948

    William Campbell Abbott|b. 1868\nd. 1948|p29514.htm#i295138|Johnathan Abbott|b. 1 Jul 1840\nd. 22 Mar 1910|p17250.htm#i172496|Sarah Campbell|d. 1929|p29514.htm#i295137|Thomas Abbott|b. 11 Feb 1809\nd. 25 Nov 1868|p17250.htm#i172491|Eliza J. Mills|b. 27 Jun 1820\nd. 9 Jun 1895|p17250.htm#i172494|William Campbell||p41147.htm#i411461|Anne Quirk||p41147.htm#i411462|

    Last Edited=10 Jun 2008
    William Campbell Abbott was born in 1868 at Manning Rver, New South Wales, Australia.1 He was the son of Johnathan Abbott and Sarah Campbell.1 He married Maud A. Hibbard in 1900 at Kempsey, New South Wales, Australia.1 He died in 1948 at Manly, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.1
    Child of William Campbell Abbott and Maud A. Hibbard
    Eric C. Abbott1 b. 1903
    Citations
    [S3174] Robert Lloyd-Jones, “re: Abbott Family,” e-mail message to Darryl Roger Lundy, 3 June 2008. Hereinafter cited as “re: Abbott Family.”
    Maud A. Hibbard1
    F, #295139

    Last Edited=10 Jun 2008
    Maud A. Hibbard married William Campbell Abbott, son of Johnathan Abbott and Sarah Campbell, in 1900 at Kempsey, New South Wales, Australia.1
    From 1900, her married name became Abbott.1
    Child of Maud A. Hibbard and William Campbell Abbott
    Eric C. Abbott1 b. 1903
    Citations
    [S3174] Robert Lloyd-Jones, “re: Abbott Family,” e-mail message to Darryl Roger Lundy, 3 June 2008. Hereinafter cited as “re: Abbott Family.”
    Eric C. Abbott1
    M, #295140, b. 1903

    Eric C. Abbott|b. 1903|p29514.htm#i295140|William Campbell Abbott|b. 1868\nd. 1948|p29514.htm#i295138|Maud A. Hibbard||p29514.htm#i295139|Johnathan Abbott|b. 1 Jul 1840\nd. 22 Mar 1910|p17250.htm#i172496|Sarah Campbell|d. 1929|p29514.htm#i295137|||||||

    Last Edited=10 Jun 2008
    Eric C. Abbott was born in 1903 at Kempsey, New South Wales, Australia.1 He is the son of William Campbell Abbott and Maud A. Hibbard.1
    Citations
    [S3174] Robert Lloyd-Jones, “re: Abbott Family,” e-mail message to Darryl Roger Lundy, 3 June 2008. Hereinafter cited as “re: Abbott Family.”

  4. Renee says:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aleister_Crowley
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Liddell_MacGregor_Mathers
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L._Ron_Hubbard
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sea_Org

    No. 41 (tied): Paul and Daisy M. Soros – The Chronicle of … philanthropy.com/article/philanthropy50/126108/

    Feb 6, 2011 … Mr. Soros, 84, and his wife, Daisy, 81, gave $25-million to the Paul & Daisy Soros Fellowship for New Americans, in New York, to support …

    Daisy Mcgreggor Soros*

    Schwartz/ Black*
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Soros

    Soundex Code for Liddell = L340
    Other surnames sharing this Soundex Code:
    LAIDLAW | LEADLAY | LIDDELL | LIDDLE | LITTLE | LUDLOW | LYTLE |

  5. Renee says:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phillips_Petroleum_Company
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archie_W._Dunham
    Archie W. Dunham (born 1938) is the Independent Non-Executive Chairman of Chesapeake Energy in Oklahoma City. He served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Conoco Inc.[1] from January 1996 to August 2002, then as Chairman of ConocoPhillips, following the merger of Conoco Inc. and Phillips Petroleum Company, until his retirement on September 30, 2004.

    Dunham grew up in Oklahoma. After earning a bachelor’s degree in Geological Engineering from the University of Oklahoma in 1960, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the United States Marine Corps. Dunham served four years in the Marines, then returned to the University of Oklahoma to complete an MBA in 1966.

    [edit] CareerDunham joined Conoco Inc. in 1966 and subsequently held a number of commercial and managerial positions within Conoco and E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company (“DuPont”). Mr. Dunham served as Senior Vice President, Polymers and Executive Vice President of E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Conoco’s former parent, from 1995 to October 1998. Mr. Dunham served as Executive Vice President, Exploration Production and Executive Vice President, Refining, Marketing, Supply and Transportation for Conoco. He served as Chairman, President, and CEO of Conoco Inc., (integrated energy company) from August 1999 to August 2002. Mr. Dunham served as Chairman of ConocoPhillips (integrated energy company) from August 2002, following the merger of Conoco Inc. and Phillips Petroleum Company, until his retirement until September 30, 2004.

    Mr. Dunham was previously a Director of DuPont, Phelps Dodge, and Pride International. He has been a Director of Union Pacific since 2000, and is a Member of the Executive Committee. He has been a Director of Louisiana-Pacific since 1996.

    He was Chairman of the United States Energy Association, the National Petroleum Council and the National Association of Manufacturers. Mr. Dunham is also a Member of the board of visitors at the University of Oklahoma. He was a Director of the American Petroleum Institute, the U.S.-Russia Business Council and the Greater Houston Partnership. He served on the board of the Memorial Hermann Healthcare System in Houston, the board of visitors of M.D. Anderson Cancer Center the board of Trustees of the Houston Symphony, the George Bush Presidential Library and the Smithsonian Institution. He served as a Trustee of Houston Grand Opera. He was a member of The Business Council and The Business Roundtable. He is also a member of the Deutsche Bank Advisory Board of Directors.

    In 2012, Mr. Dunham was appointed Independent Non-Executive Chairman of Chesapeake Energy as part of changes to the board of directors following concerns about loans and other corporate governance issues made under the watch of CEO and former chairman Aubrey McClendon.[2]

    [edit] Marriage and childrenArchie and Linda Dunham married in 1960. The couple has three children, Steven, Laura, and Cary.

  6. Renee says:

    A different group now.
    http://thepeerage.com/p19531.htm
    Kalmon Herz1
    M, #195301, d. 1707

    Kalmon Herz|d. 1707|p19531.htm#i195301|Naphtali Herz|d. 1685|p19530.htm#i195298|Hannah (?)|d. 1686|p19530.htm#i195300|Moses Elchanan|d. 1635|p19530.htm#i195296|Gitchen (?)|d. 1640|p19530.htm#i195297|||||||

    Last Edited=8 Jun 2006
    Kalmon Herz was the son of Naphtali Herz and Hannah (?).2 He married, firstly, Gitle (?).1 He married, secondly, Bele (?).1 He died in 1707.1
    Children of Kalmon Herz
    Meier Herz3 d. 1747
    Herz Moses Herz3 d. 1728
    Child of Kalmon Herz and Bele (?)
    Moses Rothschild+2 d. 1735
    Citations
    [S37] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 3, page 3415. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    [S37] Charles Mosley, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    [S37] Charles Mosley, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition, volume 3, page 415.
    Gitle (?)1
    F, #195302, d. 1668

    Last Edited=8 Jun 2006
    Gitle (?) married Kalmon Herz, son of Naphtali Herz and Hannah (?).1 She died in 1668.1
    Citations
    [S37] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 3, page 3415. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    Bele (?)1
    F, #195303, d. 1712

    Last Edited=8 Jun 2006
    Bele (?) married Kalmon Herz, son of Naphtali Herz and Hannah (?).1 She died in 1712.1
    Child of Bele (?) and Kalmon Herz
    Moses Rothschild+2 d. 1735
    Citations
    [S37] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 3, page 3415. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    [S37] Charles Mosley, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    Moses Rothschild1
    M, #195304, d. 1735

    Moses Rothschild|d. 1735|p19531.htm#i195304|Kalmon Herz|d. 1707|p19531.htm#i195301|Bele (?)|d. 1712|p19531.htm#i195303|Naphtali Herz|d. 1685|p19530.htm#i195298|Hannah (?)|d. 1686|p19530.htm#i195300|||||||

    Last Edited=8 Jun 2006
    Moses Rothschild was the son of Kalmon Herz and Bele (?).2 He died in 1735.1
    The name of Rothschild (‘red-shield’) comes from the sign outside the family’s house in the Frankfurt ghetto.1 He was also known as Moses Bauer.3
    Children of Moses Rothschild
    Amschel Moses Rothschild+2 d. 1755
    Herz Moses Rothschild3 d. 1728
    Citations
    [S37] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 3, page 3415. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    [S37] Charles Mosley, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    [S37] Charles Mosley, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition, volume 3, page 415.
    Amschel Moses Rothschild1
    M, #195305, d. 1755

    Amschel Moses Rothschild|d. 1755|p19531.htm#i195305|Moses Rothschild|d. 1735|p19531.htm#i195304||||Kalmon Herz|d. 1707|p19531.htm#i195301|Bele (?)|d. 1712|p19531.htm#i195303|||||||

    Last Edited=8 Jun 2006
    Amschel Moses Rothschild was the son of Moses Rothschild.2 He married Schönche Lechnich.1 He died in 1755,, leaving:.1
    He was also known as Herz Moses Bauer.3
    Children of Amschel Moses Rothschild and Schönche Lechnich
    Kalman Amschel Rothschild2 d. 1782
    Bele Rothschild2 d. 1759
    Mayer Amschel Rothschild+2 b. 23 Feb 1743/44, d. 19 Sep 1812
    Moses Amschel Rothschild2 b. 1746, d. 1794
    Gutelche Rothschild2 b. 1755, d. 1812
    Citations
    [S37] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 3, page 3415. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    [S37] Charles Mosley, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    [S37] Charles Mosley, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition, volume 3, page 415.

    Schönche Lechnich1
    F, #195306, d. 1756

    Last Edited=8 Jun 2006
    Schönche Lechnich married Amschel Moses Rothschild, son of Moses Rothschild.1 She died in 1756.1
    Children of Schönche Lechnich and Amschel Moses Rothschild
    Kalman Amschel Rothschild2 d. 1782
    Bele Rothschild2 d. 1759
    Mayer Amschel Rothschild+2 b. 23 Feb 1743/44, d. 19 Sep 1812
    Moses Amschel Rothschild2 b. 1746, d. 1794
    Gutelche Rothschild2 b. 1755, d. 1812
    Citations
    [S37] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 3, page 3415. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    [S37] Charles Mosley, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    Mayer Amschel Rothschild1
    M, #195307, b. 23 February 1743/44, d. 19 September 1812

    Mayer Amschel Rothschild|b. 23 Feb 1743/44\nd. 19 Sep 1812|p19531.htm#i195307|Amschel Moses Rothschild|d. 1755|p19531.htm#i195305|Schönche Lechnich|d. 1756|p19531.htm#i195306|Moses Rothschild|d. 1735|p19531.htm#i195304||||||||||

    Last Edited=8 Jun 2006
    Mayer Amschel Rothschild was born on 23 February 1743/44.1 He was the son of Amschel Moses Rothschild and Schönche Lechnich.2 He married Gutle Schnapper, daughter of Salomon Baruch Schnapper, in 1770.1 He died on 19 September 1812 at age 68.1
    He was an Imperial (Holy Roman Empire) Crown Agent in 1800.1
    Children of Mayer Amschel Rothschild and Gutle Schnapper
    Schönge Jeannette Rothschild+2 b. 11 Aug 1771, d. 15 Feb 1858
    Amschel Mayer Rothschild2 b. 1773, d. 1855
    Salomon Mayer Rothschild+2 b. 1774, d. 1855
    Nathan Mayer Rothschild+2 b. 16 Sep 1777, d. 28 Jul 1836
    Isabella Rothschild2 b. 1781, d. 1861
    Babette Rothschild2 b. 1784, d. 1869
    Baron Carl Mayer de Rothschild+2 b. 1788, d. 1855
    Julie Rothschild2 b. 1790, d. 1815
    Henriette Rothschild+2 b. 1791, d. 19 Feb 1866
    James Mayer de Rothschild+2 b. 1792, d. 1868
    Citations
    [S37] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 3, page 3415. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    [S37] Charles Mosley, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    Salomon Baruch Schnapper1
    M, #195308

    Last Edited=8 Jun 2006
    Child of Salomon Baruch Schnapper
    Gutle Schnapper+2 b. 23 Aug 1753, d. 7 May 1849
    Citations
    [S37] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 3, page 3415. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    [S37] Charles Mosley, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    Gutle Schnapper1
    F, #195309, b. 23 August 1753, d. 7 May 1849

    Gutle Schnapper|b. 23 Aug 1753\nd. 7 May 1849|p19531.htm#i195309|Salomon Baruch Schnapper||p19531.htm#i195308||||||||||||||||

    Last Edited=27 May 2008
    Gutle Schnapper was born on 23 August 1753.3 She was the daughter of Salomon Baruch Schnapper.2 She married Mayer Amschel Rothschild, son of Amschel Moses Rothschild and Schönche Lechnich, in 1770.1 She died on 7 May 1849 at age 95.4,3
    From 1770, her married name became Rothschild.
    Children of Gutle Schnapper and Mayer Amschel Rothschild
    Schönge Jeannette Rothschild+2 b. 11 Aug 1771, d. 15 Feb 1858
    Amschel Mayer Rothschild2 b. 1773, d. 1855
    Salomon Mayer Rothschild+2 b. 1774, d. 1855
    Nathan Mayer Rothschild+2 b. 16 Sep 1777, d. 28 Jul 1836
    Isabella Rothschild2 b. 1781, d. 1861
    Babette Rothschild2 b. 1784, d. 1869
    Baron Carl Mayer de Rothschild+2 b. 1788, d. 1855
    Julie Rothschild2 b. 1790, d. 1815
    Henriette Rothschild+2 b. 1791, d. 19 Feb 1866
    James Mayer de Rothschild+2 b. 1792, d. 1868
    Citations
    [S37] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 3, page 3415. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    [S37] Charles Mosley, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    [S2820] Lisa McCartan, “re: Rothschild Family,” e-mail message to Darryl Roger Lundy, 27 May 2008. Hereinafter cited as “re: Rothschild Family.”
    [S37] Charles Mosley, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition, volume 3, page 415.
    Amschel Mayer Rothschild1
    M, #195310, b. 1773, d. 1855

    Amschel Mayer Rothschild|b. 1773\nd. 1855|p19531.htm#i195310|Mayer Amschel Rothschild|b. 23 Feb 1743/44\nd. 19 Sep 1812|p19531.htm#i195307|Gutle Schnapper|b. 23 Aug 1753\nd. 7 May 1849|p19531.htm#i195309|Amschel M. Rothschild|d. 1755|p19531.htm#i195305|Schönche Lechnich|d. 1756|p19531.htm#i195306|Salomon B. Schnapper||p19531.htm#i195308||||

    Last Edited=9 Jun 2006
    Amschel Mayer Rothschild was born in 1773.1 He was the son of Mayer Amschel Rothschild and Gutle Schnapper.2 He married Eva Hanau in 1796.1 He died in 1855.1
    He continued the family business at Frankfurt.1 He was created Baron Rothschild [Austrian Empire] on 29 September 1822.3 On his death, his business eventually passed into the hands of the Naples Rothschilds.3
    Citations
    [S37] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 3, page 3415. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    [S37] Charles Mosley, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    [S37] Charles Mosley, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition, volume 3, page 415.

  7. Renee says:

    http://thepeerage.com/p25303.htm
    Boris Loutzky1
    M, #253021

    Last Edited=20 Nov 2007
    Boris Loutzky married Olga Samaroff before 1910.1 He and Olga Samaroff were divorced.1
    He was an engineer.1
    Citations
    [S130] Wikipedia, online http;//www.wikipedia.org. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
    Baruch Lumet1
    M, #253022

    Last Edited=20 Nov 2007
    Baruch Lumet was a theatre actor at Poland.1
    Child of Baruch Lumet and Eugenius Wermus
    Sidney Lumet+1 b. 25 Jun 1924
    Citations
    [S130] Wikipedia, online http;//www.wikipedia.org. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
    Eugenius Wermus1
    F, #253023

    Last Edited=20 Nov 2007
    Eugenius Wermus was a dancer.1
    Child of Eugenius Wermus and Baruch Lumet
    Sidney Lumet+1 b. 25 Jun 1924
    Citations
    [S130] Wikipedia, online http;//www.wikipedia.org. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
    Rita Game1
    F, #253024

    Last Edited=20 Nov 2007
    Rita Game married Sidney Lumet, son of Baruch Lumet and Eugenius Wermus, in 1949.1 She and Sidney Lumet were divorced in 1954.1
    From 1949, her married name became Lumet.1
    Citations
    [S130] Wikipedia, online http;//www.wikipedia.org. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
    Gail Jones1
    F, #253025

    Gail Jones||p25303.htm#i253025||||Lena Horne||p25303.htm#i253026|||||||||||||

    Last Edited=20 Nov 2007
    Gail Jones is the daughter of Lena Horne.1 She married Sidney Lumet, son of Baruch Lumet and Eugenius Wermus, in 1963.1 She and Sidney Lumet were divorced in 1978.1
    From 1963, her married name became Lumet.1
    Children of Gail Jones and Sidney Lumet
    Amy Lumet1 b. 1964
    Jenny Lumet1 b. 1967
    Citations
    [S130] Wikipedia, online http;//www.wikipedia.org. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.

    Lena Horne1
    F, #253026

    Last Edited=20 Nov 2007
    Child of Lena Horne
    Gail Jones+1
    Citations
    [S130] Wikipedia, online http;//www.wikipedia.org. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
    Amy Lumet1
    F, #253027, b. 1964

    Amy Lumet|b. 1964|p25303.htm#i253027|Sidney Lumet|b. 25 Jun 1924|p25301.htm#i253010|Gail Jones||p25303.htm#i253025|Baruch Lumet||p25303.htm#i253022|Eugenius Wermus||p25303.htm#i253023||||Lena Horne||p25303.htm#i253026|

    Last Edited=20 Nov 2007
    Amy Lumet was born in 1964.1 She is the daughter of Sidney Lumet and Gail Jones.1
    Citations
    [S130] Wikipedia, online http;//www.wikipedia.org. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
    Jenny Lumet1
    F, #253028, b. 1967

    Jenny Lumet|b. 1967|p25303.htm#i253028|Sidney Lumet|b. 25 Jun 1924|p25301.htm#i253010|Gail Jones||p25303.htm#i253025|Baruch Lumet||p25303.htm#i253022|Eugenius Wermus||p25303.htm#i253023||||Lena Horne||p25303.htm#i253026|

    Last Edited=20 Nov 2007
    Jenny Lumet was born in 1967.1 She is the daughter of Sidney Lumet and Gail Jones.1
    Citations
    [S130] Wikipedia, online http;//www.wikipedia.org. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
    Mary Gimbel1
    F, #253029

    Last Edited=20 Nov 2007
    Mary Gimbel married Sidney Lumet, son of Baruch Lumet and Eugenius Wermus, in 1980.1
    From 1980, her married name became Lumet.1
    Citations
    [S130] Wikipedia, online http;//www.wikipedia.org. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
    Harry Hays Morgan1
    M, #253030

    Harry Hays Morgan||p25303.htm#i253030|Philip Hickey Morgan||p25304.htm#i253040||||||||||||||||

    Last Edited=20 Nov 2007
    Harry Hays Morgan is the son of Philip Hickey Morgan.2 He married Laura Delphine Kilpatrick, daughter of Maj.-Gen. Hugh Judson Kilpatrick and Luisa Valdivieso Araoz.1 He and Laura Delphine Kilpatrick were divorced in 1927 at Paris, France.2
    He was U.S. Consul to Brussels.1 He was U.S. Consul to Buenos Aires.1
    Children of Harry Hays Morgan and Laura Delphine Kilpatrick
    Consuelo Morgan1
    Harry Hays Morgan3
    Gloria Laura Mercedes Morgan+1 b. 23 Aug 1904, d. 13 Feb 1965
    Thelma Morgan1 b. 23 Aug 1904, d. 1970
    Citations
    [S130] Wikipedia, online http;//www.wikipedia.org. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
    [S252] Obituaries, Time magazine, unknown location, June 27, 1927. Hereinafter cited as Time magazine.
    [S34] Peter Townend, editor, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 105th edition (London, U.K.: Burke’s Peerage Ltd, 1970), page 1056. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage, 105th ed.

  8. Renee says:

    http://www.thepeerage.com/p5302.htm
    Thomas Godwin Campbel Reynolds
    M, #53011, b. 1863, d. 1931

    Last Edited=10 May 2003
    Thomas Godwin Campbel Reynolds was born in 1863. He married Mabel Vane Russell, daughter of Harry Russell and unknown Meyrick, in April 1904. He died in 1931.
    William Harry Vane Milbank
    M, #53012, b. 28 December 1848, d. 24 October 1892

    William Harry Vane Milbank|b. 28 Dec 1848\nd. 24 Oct 1892|p5302.htm#i53012|Sir Frederick Acclom Milbank, 1st Bt.|b. 21 Apr 1820\nd. 28 Apr 1898|p4992.htm#i49912|Alexina Harriet Elizabeth Don|b. c 1826\nd. 22 Feb 1919|p4992.htm#i49911|Mark Milbank|b. 3 May 1795\nd. 21 Oct 1881|p4578.htm#i45778|Lady Augusta H. Vane|b. 26 Dec 1796\nd. 13 Sep 1874|p1158.htm#i11579|Sir Alexander Don of Newton Don, 6th Bt.|b. 1779\nd. 11 Mar 1826|p4991.htm#i49910|Grace Stein|d. 13 Mar 1878|p37148.htm#i371479|

    Last Edited=10 May 2003
    Consanguinity Index=0.0%
    William Harry Vane Milbank was born on 28 December 1848. He was the son of Sir Frederick Acclom Milbank, 1st Bt. and Alexina Harriet Elizabeth Don. He married Alice Sidone Vandenburg Baruch on 1 March 1871. He died on 24 October 1892 at age 43.
    Alice Sidone Vandenburg Baruch
    F, #53013, d. 26 April 1916

    Last Edited=10 May 2003
    Alice Sidone Vandenburg Baruch married William Harry Vane Milbank, son of Sir Frederick Acclom Milbank, 1st Bt. and Alexina Harriet Elizabeth Don, on 1 March 1871. She died on 26 April 1916.
    Her married name became Milbank.
    Adriana Camarca1
    F, #53014

    Last Edited=27 Dec 2003
    Adriana Camarca married Jocelyn Roy Lubbock, son of Roy Lubbock and Yvonne Vernham, in 1976.1
    She lived at Rome, Italy.1 From 1976, her married name became Lubbock.1
    Citations
    [S8] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition, 2 volumes (Crans, Switzerland: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 1999), volume 1, page 147. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition.
    Alice Frederica Milbank
    F, #53015, b. 1855, d. 25 November 1902

    Alice Frederica Milbank|b. 1855\nd. 25 Nov 1902|p5302.htm#i53015|Sir Frederick Acclom Milbank, 1st Bt.|b. 21 Apr 1820\nd. 28 Apr 1898|p4992.htm#i49912|Alexina Harriet Elizabeth Don|b. c 1826\nd. 22 Feb 1919|p4992.htm#i49911|Mark Milbank|b. 3 May 1795\nd. 21 Oct 1881|p4578.htm#i45778|Lady Augusta H. Vane|b. 26 Dec 1796\nd. 13 Sep 1874|p1158.htm#i11579|Sir Alexander Don of Newton Don, 6th Bt.|b. 1779\nd. 11 Mar 1826|p4991.htm#i49910|Grace Stein|d. 13 Mar 1878|p37148.htm#i371479|

    Last Edited=17 Oct 2004
    Consanguinity Index=0.0%
    Alice Frederica Milbank was born in 1855. She was the daughter of Sir Frederick Acclom Milbank, 1st Bt. and Alexina Harriet Elizabeth Don. She married Sir David Dale, 1st Bt. on 2 August 1888. She died on 25 November 1902.
    Her married name became Dale.

    Sir David Dale, 1st Bt.
    M, #53016, b. 1829, d. 28 April 1906

    Last Edited=28 Oct 2003
    Sir David Dale, 1st Bt. was born in 1829. He married, secondly, Alice Frederica Milbank, daughter of Sir Frederick Acclom Milbank, 1st Bt. and Alexina Harriet Elizabeth Don, on 2 August 1888. He died on 28 April 1906.
    He gained the title of 1st Baronet Dale.
    Wilhelmina Louisa Milbank
    F, #53017, d. 3 March 1903

    Wilhelmina Louisa Milbank|d. 3 Mar 1903|p5302.htm#i53017|Sir Frederick Acclom Milbank, 1st Bt.|b. 21 Apr 1820\nd. 28 Apr 1898|p4992.htm#i49912|Alexina Harriet Elizabeth Don|b. c 1826\nd. 22 Feb 1919|p4992.htm#i49911|Mark Milbank|b. 3 May 1795\nd. 21 Oct 1881|p4578.htm#i45778|Lady Augusta H. Vane|b. 26 Dec 1796\nd. 13 Sep 1874|p1158.htm#i11579|Sir Alexander Don of Newton Don, 6th Bt.|b. 1779\nd. 11 Mar 1826|p4991.htm#i49910|Grace Stein|d. 13 Mar 1878|p37148.htm#i371479|

    Last Edited=10 May 2003
    Consanguinity Index=0.0%
    Wilhelmina Louisa Milbank was the daughter of Sir Frederick Acclom Milbank, 1st Bt. and Alexina Harriet Elizabeth Don. She died on 3 March 1903.
    Aline Laura Milbank1
    F, #53018, b. circa 1876, d. 6 March 1962

    Aline Laura Milbank|b. c 1876\nd. 6 Mar 1962|p5302.htm#i53018|Sir Powlett Charles John Milbank, 2nd Bt.|b. 1 May 1852\nd. 30 Jan 1918|p4992.htm#i49913|Edith Mary Green-Price|d. 1 Mar 1928|p4992.htm#i49914|Sir Frederick A. Milbank, 1st Bt.|b. 21 Apr 1820\nd. 28 Apr 1898|p4992.htm#i49912|Alexina H. E. Don|b. c 1826\nd. 22 Feb 1919|p4992.htm#i49911|Sir Richard Green-Price, 1st Bt.|b. 18 Oct 1803\nd. 11 Aug 1887|p4992.htm#i49915|Laura King|d. 18 Mar 1903|p42603.htm#i426021|

    Last Edited=29 Jun 2012
    Aline Laura Milbank was born circa 1876. She was the daughter of Sir Powlett Charles John Milbank, 2nd Bt. and Edith Mary Green-Price.2 She married Lt.-Col. Francis William Forester, son of William Henry Forester and Hon. Eleanor Alexandrina Fraser, on 10 April 1894.1 She died on 6 March 1962.
    Her married name became Forester.
    Children of Aline Laura Milbank and Lt.-Col. Francis William Forester
    Catherine Augusta Forester+2 d. 1986
    Mary Eleanor Forester+2 b. 1895, d. 7 Sep 1967
    Henry William Forester+2 b. 1899
    Aline Margaret Forester2 b. 1904
    Citations
    [S37] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 1, page 1465. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    [S37] Charles Mosley, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    Lt.-Col. Francis William Forester1
    M, #53019, b. 1860, d. 20 September 1942

    Lt.-Col. Francis William Forester|b. 1860\nd. 20 Sep 1942|p5302.htm#i53019|William Henry Forester|b. 1819\nd. 7 Jan 1891|p45005.htm#i450047|Hon. Eleanor Alexandrina Fraser|d. 12 May 1914|p45005.htm#i450048|Major Francis Forester|b. 19 Aug 1774\nd. 21 Oct 1861|p10847.htm#i108465|Lady Louisa C. B. Vane|b. 4 Jan 1791\nd. 8 Jan 1821|p11243.htm#i112428|Hon. William Fraser|b. 12 Oct 1791\nd. 21 Mar 1845|p3085.htm#i30849|Elizabeth G. Macdowall-Grant|d. 5 May 1853|p3085.htm#i30850|

    Last Edited=29 Jun 2012
    Consanguinity Index=0.0%
    Lt.-Col. Francis William Forester was born in 1860.1 He was the son of William Henry Forester and Hon. Eleanor Alexandrina Fraser.2 He married Aline Laura Milbank, daughter of Sir Powlett Charles John Milbank, 2nd Bt. and Edith Mary Green-Price, on 10 April 1894.1 He died on 20 September 1942.1
    He was educated at Eton College, Windsor, Berkshire, England.1 He gained the rank of Captain in the service of the 3rd Hussars Yeomanry.1 He gained the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel between 1895 and 1900 in the service of the West Somerset Yeomanry.1 He lived at Hurdcott House, Salisbury, Wiltshire, England.3 He lived at Somerby, Leicestershire, England.1
    Children of Lt.-Col. Francis William Forester and Aline Laura Milbank
    Catherine Augusta Forester+2 d. 1986
    Mary Eleanor Forester+2 b. 1895, d. 7 Sep 1967
    Henry William Forester+2 b. 1899
    Aline Margaret Forester2 b. 1904
    Citations
    [S37] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 1, page 1465. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    [S37] Charles Mosley, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    [S37] Charles Mosley, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition, volume 1, page 224.
    Sybil May Milbank
    F, #53020, d. 19 September 1930

    Sybil May Milbank|d. 19 Sep 1930|p5302.htm#i53020|Sir Powlett Charles John Milbank, 2nd Bt.|b. 1 May 1852\nd. 30 Jan 1918|p4992.htm#i49913|Edith Mary Green-Price|d. 1 Mar 1928|p4992.htm#i49914|Sir Frederick A. Milbank, 1st Bt.|b. 21 Apr 1820\nd. 28 Apr 1898|p4992.htm#i49912|Alexina H. E. Don|b. c 1826\nd. 22 Feb 1919|p4992.htm#i49911|Sir Richard Green-Price, 1st Bt.|b. 18 Oct 1803\nd. 11 Aug 1887|p4992.htm#i49915|Laura King|d. 18 Mar 1903|p42603.htm#i426021|

    Last Edited=10 May 2003
    Sybil May Milbank was the daughter of Sir Powlett Charles John Milbank, 2nd Bt. and Edith Mary Green-Price. She married Lt.-Col. Sir Murrough John Wilson on 16 February 1904. She died on 19 September 1930.
    Her married name became Wilson.
    Children of Sybil May Milbank and Lt.-Col. Sir Murrough John Wilson
    John Wilson b. 1905, d. 1905
    Geraldine Edith Mary Wilson b. 19 Dec 1905
    Kathleen May Wilson+ b. 19 Aug 1909
    Gerald Richard Powlet Wilson+ b. 10 Mar 1912
    Pamela Wilson+ b. 21 Mar 1915

  9. Renee says:

    http://thepeerage.com/p55750.htm
    Barthold Mackay1
    M, #557491, b. 1987

    Barthold Mackay|b. 1987|p55750.htm#i557491|Eric Mackay|b. 9 Nov 1953|p55749.htm#i557488|Geertje Boschma||p55749.htm#i557490|Eric R. A. Mackay|b. 21 May 1917|p55748.htm#i557474|Gertrud Brückmann||p55748.htm#i557476|Dr. (?) Boschma||p55749.htm#i557489||||

    Last Edited=30 May 2012
    Barthold Mackay was born in 1987.1 He is the son of Eric Mackay and Geertje Boschma.2
    Citations
    [S37] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 3, page 3303. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    [S37] Charles Mosley, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    Christiaan Mackay1
    M, #557492, b. 1991

    Christiaan Mackay|b. 1991|p55750.htm#i557492|Eric Mackay|b. 9 Nov 1953|p55749.htm#i557488|Geertje Boschma||p55749.htm#i557490|Eric R. A. Mackay|b. 21 May 1917|p55748.htm#i557474|Gertrud Brückmann||p55748.htm#i557476|Dr. (?) Boschma||p55749.htm#i557489||||

    Last Edited=30 May 2012
    Christiaan Mackay was born in 1991.1 He is the son of Eric Mackay and Geertje Boschma.2
    Citations
    [S37] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 3, page 3303. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    [S37] Charles Mosley, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    Charlotte Mackay1
    F, #557493, b. 1985

    Charlotte Mackay|b. 1985|p55750.htm#i557493|Eric Mackay|b. 9 Nov 1953|p55749.htm#i557488|Geertje Boschma||p55749.htm#i557490|Eric R. A. Mackay|b. 21 May 1917|p55748.htm#i557474|Gertrud Brückmann||p55748.htm#i557476|Dr. (?) Boschma||p55749.htm#i557489||||

    Last Edited=30 May 2012
    Charlotte Mackay was born in 1985.1 She is the daughter of Eric Mackay and Geertje Boschma.2
    Citations
    [S37] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 3, page 3303. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    [S37] Charles Mosley, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    Helene Gérardine Mackay1
    F, #557494, b. 7 June 1907, d. 20 March 2001

    Helene Gérardine Mackay|b. 7 Jun 1907\nd. 20 Mar 2001|p55750.htm#i557494|Dirk Rijnhard Johan Mackay|b. 19 Dec 1876\nd. 11 Mar 1960|p55751.htm#i557505|Johanna Elisabeth Blaauw|d. 15 Nov 1920|p55743.htm#i557430|Theodoor P. Mackay|b. 24 Apr 1840\nd. 29 Nov 1922|p55734.htm#i557340|Baroness Juliana A. v. L. Lynden|d. 4 Mar 1835|p55735.htm#i557342|Abraham J. Blaauw||p55743.htm#i557429||||

    Last Edited=4 Jul 2012
    Helene Gérardine Mackay was born on 7 June 1907.1 She was the daughter of Dirk Rijnhard Johan Mackay and Johanna Elisabeth Blaauw.2 She married Rodney Frederick Jarrett Sterwin, son of Philip Jarrett Sterwin, on 23 December 1926.1 She died on 20 March 2001 at age 93.1
    Her married name became Sterwin.
    Children of Helene Gérardine Mackay and Rodney Frederick Jarrett Sterwin
    Angela Helen Sterwin2 b. 1929
    Peter Philip Sterwin2 b. 1930
    Citations
    [S37] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 3, page 3303. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    [S37] Charles Mosley, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    Philip Jarrett Sterwin1
    M, #557495

    Last Edited=30 May 2012
    Child of Philip Jarrett Sterwin
    Rodney Frederick Jarrett Sterwin+2 d. 1981
    Citations
    [S37] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 3, page 3303. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    [S37] Charles Mosley, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.

    Rodney Frederick Jarrett Sterwin1
    M, #557496, d. 1981

    Rodney Frederick Jarrett Sterwin|d. 1981|p55750.htm#i557496|Philip Jarrett Sterwin||p55750.htm#i557495||||||||||||||||

    Last Edited=30 May 2012
    Rodney Frederick Jarrett Sterwin was the son of Philip Jarrett Sterwin.2 He married Helene Gérardine Mackay, daughter of Dirk Rijnhard Johan Mackay and Johanna Elisabeth Blaauw, on 23 December 1926.1 He died in 1981.1
    Sussex.1 He lived Hove.1
    Children of Rodney Frederick Jarrett Sterwin and Helene Gérardine Mackay
    Angela Helen Sterwin2 b. 1929
    Peter Philip Sterwin2 b. 1930
    Citations
    [S37] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 3, page 3303. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    [S37] Charles Mosley, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    Peter Philip Sterwin1
    M, #557497, b. 1930

    Peter Philip Sterwin|b. 1930|p55750.htm#i557497|Rodney Frederick Jarrett Sterwin|d. 1981|p55750.htm#i557496|Helene Gérardine Mackay|b. 7 Jun 1907\nd. 20 Mar 2001|p55750.htm#i557494|Philip J. Sterwin||p55750.htm#i557495||||Dirk R. J. Mackay|b. 19 Dec 1876\nd. 11 Mar 1960|p55751.htm#i557505|Johanna E. Blaauw|d. 15 Nov 1920|p55743.htm#i557430|

    Last Edited=30 May 2012
    Peter Philip Sterwin was born in 1930.1 He is the son of Rodney Frederick Jarrett Sterwin and Helene Gérardine Mackay.2
    Citations
    [S37] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 3, page 3303. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    [S37] Charles Mosley, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    Angela Helen Sterwin1
    F, #557498, b. 1929

    Angela Helen Sterwin|b. 1929|p55750.htm#i557498|Rodney Frederick Jarrett Sterwin|d. 1981|p55750.htm#i557496|Helene Gérardine Mackay|b. 7 Jun 1907\nd. 20 Mar 2001|p55750.htm#i557494|Philip J. Sterwin||p55750.htm#i557495||||Dirk R. J. Mackay|b. 19 Dec 1876\nd. 11 Mar 1960|p55751.htm#i557505|Johanna E. Blaauw|d. 15 Nov 1920|p55743.htm#i557430|

    Last Edited=30 May 2012
    Angela Helen Sterwin was born in 1929.1 She is the daughter of Rodney Frederick Jarrett Sterwin and Helene Gérardine Mackay.2
    Citations
    [S37] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 3, page 3303. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    [S37] Charles Mosley, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    Anna Maria Mackay1
    F, #557499, b. 17 March 1913, d. 31 March 1997

    Anna Maria Mackay|b. 17 Mar 1913\nd. 31 Mar 1997|p55750.htm#i557499|Dirk Rijnhard Johan Mackay|b. 19 Dec 1876\nd. 11 Mar 1960|p55751.htm#i557505|Johanna Elisabeth Blaauw|d. 15 Nov 1920|p55743.htm#i557430|Theodoor P. Mackay|b. 24 Apr 1840\nd. 29 Nov 1922|p55734.htm#i557340|Baroness Juliana A. v. L. Lynden|d. 4 Mar 1835|p55735.htm#i557342|Abraham J. Blaauw||p55743.htm#i557429||||

    Last Edited=4 Jul 2012
    Anna Maria Mackay was born on 17 March 1913.1 She was the daughter of Dirk Rijnhard Johan Mackay and Johanna Elisabeth Blaauw.2 She and George Eschauzier were divorced.1 She married George Eschauzier, son of Pierre Eschauzier, on 3 March 1933.1 She died on 31 March 1997 at age 84, by her 1st husb:.1
    Her married name became Eschauzier. On 4 June 1949 married 2nd Herman Benjamin Baruch (d 15 March 1953), late US Amb to Netherlands, s of Simon Baruch.1 On 8 June 1958 married 3rd •Rolf Robert, s of Karl Robert.1 She lived in 2003 at 120 Harbour View Lane, Key Largo, FL, USA.1
    Children of Anna Maria Mackay and George Eschauzier
    Hilda Susan Eschauzier2 b. 1934
    Johanna Elisabeth Eschauzier2 b. 1936
    Pierre George Eschauzier2 b. 1940
    Citations
    [S37] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 3, page 3303. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    [S37] Charles Mosley, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    Pierre Eschauzier1
    M, #557500

    Last Edited=30 May 2012
    Child of Pierre Eschauzier
    George Eschauzier+2
    Citations
    [S37] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke’s Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 3, page 3303. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
    [S37] Charles Mosley, Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.

  10. Renee says:

    http://www.barrypopik.com/index.php/new_york_city/entry/buy_when_theres_blood_in_the_streets/
    “Buy low, sell high” is the mantra of making money on Wall Street, but when is it low enough to buy? According to one Wall Street proverb, the time to buy is when there is “blood in the streets.” The proverb has been attributed to financier Bernard Baruch and to industrialist John D. Rockefeller, Sr., but it’s most frequently attributed to Baron Rothschild.

    During the Panic of 1871 in Paris, when everyone was selling, Baron Rothschild (according to the story) was buying. The Rothschild account is described in print in 1894, 1907, 1917 and 1931.

    Wikipedia: Rothschild family
    The Rothschild family (often referred to simply as the Rothschilds), is an international banking and finance dynasty of German Jewish origin that established operations across Europe, and was ennobled by the Austrian and British governments.
    (…)
    Elevated to the nobility
    In 1816, four of the brothers were each ennobled by Austrian Emperor Francis I; Nathan was elevated in 1818. All of them were granted the Austrian title of baron or Freiherr on 29 September 1822. As such, some members of the family used “de” or “von” Rothschild to acknowledge the grant of nobility. In 1885, Nathan Mayer Rothschild II (1840–1915) of the London branch of the family, was granted the peerage title Baron Rothschild in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.

    Rothschild family banking businesses pioneered international high finance during the industrialisation of Europe and were instrumental in supporting railway systems across the world and in complex government financing for projects such as the Suez Canal. Major businesses directly founded by Rothschild family capital include Alliance Assurance (1824) (now Royal & SunAlliance); Chemin de Fer du Nord (1845); Rio Tinto Group (1873); Société Le Nickel (1880) (now Eramet); and Imétal (1962) (now Imerys).
    (…)
    French branches
    There are two branches of the family connected to France. The first was son James Mayer de Rothschild (1792–1868), known as “James”, who established de Rothschild Frères in Paris. Following the Napoleonic Wars, he played a major role in financing the construction of railroads and the mining business that helped make France an industrial power. James’ sons Gustave de Rothschild and Alphonse James de Rothschild continued the banking tradition and were responsible for raising the money to pay the compensation demanded by the occupying Prussian army in the 1870s Franco-Prussian War. Ensuing generations of the Paris Rothschild family remained involved in the family business, becoming a major force in international investment banking. The Rothschilds have led the Thomson Financial League Tables in Investment Banking Merger and Acquisition deals in the UK, France and Italy. In the United States, their Investment Banking Restructuring group has landed such deals as United Airlines and Delphi. The onslaught of competition from publicly traded banking giants from the United States and the European Union, who came with enormous capital at their disposal, resulted in the 2003 merger of the privately owned Rothschild banking house in France with its British banking cousins to create a single umbrella holding company.

    The second French branch was founded by Nathaniel de Rothschild (1812–1870). Born in London he was the fourth child of the founder of the British branch of the family, Nathan Mayer Rothschild (1777–1836). In 1850, Nathaniel Rothschild moved to Paris, ostensibly to work with his uncle, James Mayer Rothschild. However, in 1853 Nathaniel acquired Château Brane Mouton, a vineyard in Pauillac in the Gironde département. Nathaniel Rothschild renamed the estate, Château Mouton Rothschild and it would become one of the best known labels in the world. In 1868, Nathaniel’s uncle, James Mayer de Rothschild acquired the neighboring Chateau Lafite vineyard.

    1 January 1894, Chicago (IL) Daily Tribune, “Better Times Ahead” by H. Allaway, pg. 14 col 2
    It is related that in the old days of the Commune in Paris a panic-stricken investor turned up in the office of M. de Rothschild and exclaimed:

    “You advise me to buy securities now. You are my enemy. The streets of Paris run with blood.”

    And Rothschild’s answer was this: “My dear friend, if the streets of Paris were not running with blood do you think you would be able to buy at the present prices?”

    10 May 1907, Wall Street Journal, “In the Price,” pg. 1:
    Baron Rothschild (if his memory will bear one more legend) once advised the purchase of French Rentes. “But,” exclaimed he to whom the advice was imparted, “the streets of Paris are running with blood.” To which the Baron calmly replied: “If the streets of Paris were not running with blood you could not buy Rentes at this price.”

  11. Renee says:

    Soundex Code for Baruch = B620
    Other surnames sharing this Soundex Code:
    BAREIS | BARGY | BARRICK | BARROWS | BARRS | BARRUS | BARWICK | BARWIS | BEARCE | BEARSE | BEERS | BEIERS | BERG | BERGEY | BERGIE | BERKEY | BERRICK | BEYERS | BIERCE | BIRCH | BIRGE | BORIS | BOROWSKI | BOURG | BOURKE | BOWERS | BRACE | BRAGG | BRAKE | BREECH | BREES | BREESE | BREEZE | BRESCH | BRESEE | BREZEE | BRICE | BRICK | BRICKEY | BRIECK | BRIGGS | BRISCOE | BRISKEY | BRIX | BRIXEY | BROACH | BROCK | BROCKWAY | BROKAW | BROOK | BROOKE | BROOKS | BROSCH | BROSSEAU | BROUGH | BRUCE | BRUCH | BRUCK | BRUGH | BRUSH | BRYCE | BRYS | BURAS | BURCH | BURG | BURGE | BURK | BURKE | BURKEY | BURKS | BURRESS | BURRIS | BURROWS | BURSEY | BURSK | BYARS | BYERS |

  12. Renee says:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barrick_Gold
    Barrick Gold Corporation is the largest gold mining company in the world, with its headquarters in Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and four regional business units (RBU’s) located in Australia, Africa, North America and South America. Barrick is currently undertaking mining and exploration projects in Papua New Guinea, the United States, Canada, Dominican Republic, Australia, Peru, Chile, Russia, South Africa, Pakistan, Colombia, Argentina and Tanzania. For 2008, it produced 7.7 million ounces of gold at a cash cost of US $443/ounce. As of December 31, 2008 its proven and probable gold mineral reserves stand at 138.5 million ounces.

    On January 20, 2006, Barrick acquired a majority share of Placer Dome. The production of the combined organization moved Barrick to its current position as the largest gold producer, ahead of Newmont Mining Corporation.

    Barrick Gold Corporation evolved from a privately held North American oil and gas company,[2] Barrick Resources.[3] After suffering huge financial losses in oil and gas,[4] principal Peter Munk decided to focus on gold.[5] Barrick Resources Corporation became a publicly traded company on May 2, 1983,[6] listing on the Toronto Stock Exchange.[7]

    The company’s first acquisition was the Renabie mine, near Wawa, Ontario,[8] which produced around 16,000 ounces of gold in 1984.[9] In 1984, Barrick acquired Camflo Mining,[10] which had operations in the province of Quebec[9] and in the U.S. state of Nevada.[11] Barrick’s effort to purchase was slowed by skepticism the company could assume Camflo’s debt of around $100 million.[12] The sale was finalized in May 1984, with terms that obligated Barrick to repay the debt to The Royal Bank of Canada within one year.[13] The debt was fully paid in January 1985.[14]

    Barrick Resource’s next acquisition was the Mercur mine in Mercur, Utah in June 1985,[15] followed by the Goldstrike mine, in Nevada, in 1986.[16] The Goldstrike mine is located on the Carlin Trend, estimated to hold 100,000,000 ounces of gold.[17]

    [edit] 1986 to 2005The company’s name was changed to American Barrick Resources in 1986.[18] It was listed on the New York Stock Exchange in February 1987.[19] The name was changed to the present Barrick Gold Corporation in 1995.[20]

    In a 1994 friendly takeover, American Barrick became the third largest gold mining company in the world when it acquired the Canadian mining company Lac Minerals, which owned properties in North and South America.[21] Two years later, in 1996, Arequipa Resources, owner of properties including the Pierina mine in Peru, accepted a takeover offer from the renamed Barrick Gold Corporation, worth about USD $800,000,000.[22] A third acquisition followed in early 1999, when Barrick Gold acquired Sutton Resources Ltd. for around $350 million in stock, assuming ownership of properties in Tanzania.[23] In 2001 Barrick Gold made another stock deal, worth about USD $2.3 billion, to buy the Homestake Mining Company, then one of the oldest mining companies in the United States.[24] The purchase moved Barrick to second largest gold producer in the world.[24]

    [edit] Placer Dome acquisitionThe company offered US $9.2 billion for Placer Dome Inc. in a bid announced October 31, 2005.[25] During the following weeks, Placer Dome recommended shareholders reject the offer.[26] In December, Placer Dome’s board of directors approved an increased offer worth US $10.4 billion.[27] The transaction closed in early 2006, making Barrick the world’s largest gold producer.[28]

    [edit] 2006 to presentOn July 24, 2006, Barrick announced their intent to purchase NovaGold Resources and Pioneer Metals. The unsolicited bid for NovaGold Resources was at US $1.29 billion or US $14.50 per share, and the solicited bid for Pioneer Metals was at US $53 million or US $.88 per share. NovaGold management quickly characterized Barrick’s bid for their company as undervalued. Pioneer management however quickly endorsed Barrick’s bid for their company. Previously on June 19, 2006, NovaGold made an unsolicited bid for Pioneer Metals at US $31 million. NovaGold and Pioneer are currently in litigation over the Grace project in British Columbia, Canada. That project is adjacent to NovaGold’s Galore Creek project and 75 kilometers away from Barrick’s Eskay Creek mine. NovaGold and Barrick also cross paths at the Donlin Creek project in Alaska where NovaGold is 70% owner and Barrick is 30% owner, however Barrick has the right to earn in a 70% share as a result of their takeover of Placer Dome in January 2006.

    On August 14, 2006, NovaGold filed a lawsuit in British Columbia, Canada alleging that Barrick misused confidential information to make its bid for Pioneer metals. As part of the suit, NovaGold is asking that any shares tendered to Barrick under the Pioneer bid be held in a trust for NovaGold. On August 25, 2006, NovaGold filed a second lawsuit against Barrick – this time in the District of Alaska court alleging that Barrick violated U.S. security laws by misrepresenting its position by repeatedly stating it is on-track to earn a 70% interest in the Donlin Creek mine. The suit sought a temporary suspension of Barrick’s hostile bid for NovaGold.

    On December 16, 2006, after extending the bid for NovaGold 6 times, increasing the offer once, and lowering the threshold for takeup of tendered shares from 75% to 50%, and then to no minimum, Barrick finally let the bid expire. The net result for Barrick was a takeup of 12.7% of the outstanding NovaGold shares. Barrick’s then Chief Executive Greg Wilkins indicated that the company would look elsewhere for acquisition opportunities. More recently, the company was reported to be eyeing Aurelian Resources in Ecuador.[29]

    In November 2007, NovaGold and Teck Cominco announced the suspension of Galore Creek project and Nova Gold share plummeted. During the summer and Autumn of 2008, Nova Gold tried to put their Rock Creek project in Alaska into production. After less than two months of operation, production was shut down for obscure reasons. On January 2, 2009, Nova Gold announced a 60 million dollar private placement for a 30% control in the company, valuing the company at approximately 200 millions dollars, or 1/8 of the price offered by Barrick two years earlier.[30]

    Through 2007 and 2008 the company offered a USD $10 million prize to the scientific community in a bid to improve silver recovery rates at its Veladero mine in Argentina.[31] Recovery rates for silver were below 7%, because the metal is bound within silica, which is difficult to dissolve using conventional cyanidation processing.[31] 1,750 researchers from 43 countries registered as participants with 130 proposals submitted.[32] Nine proposals were selected for testing.[33]

    Barrick Gold created the largest stock offering in Canadian history during 2009,[34] when it issued a $3 billion dollar equity offering, which was increased the following day to $3.5 billion in response to market demand.[35] Revenue from the offering was used to eliminate the company’s gold hedges, which locked in the sale price of future production, rather than selling it at market prices.[36]

    In February, 2010, Barrick Gold announced plans to create a separate company to hold its assets in Tanzania, called African Barrick Gold.[37] Barrick Gold would retain majority ownership in the new company, after its listing on the London Stock Exchange.[37] African Barrick Gold was listed on the London Stock Exchange in mid-March 2010, with an IPO valuation at US$3.6 billion.[38] The shares offered on the LSE raised just more than 500 million pounds.[39] In June the company was admitted to the FTSE 100 Index.[40]

    In April 2011, Barrick beat a takeover offer for Equinox Minerals by China Minmetals.[41][42]

    [edit] Environmental impact[edit] Mining practicesBarrick Gold has been accused of a number of environmentally unsound practices by environmental groups.[43][44][45] The company has countered accusations by activists, challenging the accuracy of criticisms.[46] It reported environment-related spending of USD $89 million in 2009.[47]

    The Super Pit gold mine
    Looking down into the Porgera open pit.Criticisms include poisonous spills of cyanide, mercury and other heavy metals, leading to environmental damage and the poisoning of human populations. Critics object to the use of gold cyanidation in the mine at Lake Cowal and other gold mines, and point to the release of approximately seven tons of mercury during 2004–2005 at the Super Pit gold mine[citation needed] (a 50/50 joint venture with Newmont Mining Corporation) near the city of Kalgoorlie-Boulder, Western Australia. In 2010, the government of Western Australia issued environmental approval for the joint owners, Barrick Gold and Newmont Mining, to expand the mine site and continue operating until 2021.[48] The Lake Cowal Mine was the first mine in the world certified under the International Cyanide Management Code.[49] The code was developed jointly by the mining industry and stakeholders with the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) to certify management, health and safety practices in the production through third party audits.[50] The mine site uses chromatography to “track and manage both the cyanide employed to leach the gold from its ore and the reagents subsequently added to destroy residual cyanide before discharge into the tailings dam.”[51]

    Nineteen of the company’s mines have since been certified under the code, while three Barrick operations do not use cyanide.[52]

    Following accusations connected with the Porgera Gold Mine, on January 30, 2009 the company was excluded from The Government Pension Fund of Norway, one of the world’s largest Sovereign Wealth Funds. The fund’s Council on Ethics in an investigation found “an unacceptable risk of contribution to ongoing and future environmental damage” at the Porgera mine:

    The Council has investigated whether riverine tailings disposal from the Porgera mine in Papua New Guinea generates severe environmental damage, and finds it established that the mining operation at Porgera entails considerable pollution. […] In the Council’s view heavy metals contamination constitutes the biggest threat of severe and long-term environmental damage. The Council also considers it probable that the discharge has a negative impact on the population’s life and health, including both the residents of the actual mining area and the tribal peoples who live along the river downstream of the mine.[53]

    The fund sold all its stock in the company, worth ca. 245m US$, as a result of these conclusions.[54] A spokesman for the company disputed the allegations, saying the company was “making steady progress in improving its performance. The mine follows a government-approved environmental management and monitoring program, and we continue to operate in full compliance with legal and other requirements.”[55][56]

    The tailings disposal is approved by the government of Papua New Guinea, which monitors to ensure World Health Organization standards for toxicity.[57] Factors including the nature of the topography geochemistry and tectonics influence tailings facility design, such that “the difficulty in ensuring that a long-term maintenance plan can be sustained in perpetuity given the challenging conditions, combined with social demands on the customary lands often preclude any tailings storage facility development.”[58][59] Tailings are neutralized before discharge to address residual cyanide and metals.[60] A study found lead and silver in mine sediments had been noted near hazardous levels but detected human health concerns(s) were related to “the accumulation of mercury in Lake Murray, which cannot be isolated as an effect of the mine-derived sediment.”[61] Some tailings at Porgera mine are managed through paste backfill,[62] a process where tailings are mixed with a binder like cement and pumped into voids under ground to solidify.[63] The Porgera Mine was certified under International Cyanide Management Code following evaluation by an independent third party examiner in November, 2009.

  13. Renee says:

    http://chivalricorders.org/nobility/nobjews.htm
    NOBLE FAMILIES OF JEWISH ANCESTRY

    © Guy Stair Sainty

    Two related publications, the Semi-Gotha, or Historisch-genealoges-Taschenbuch des gesamted Adels jehuidäischen Ursprunges of 1912 and 1913, and the Semigothaisches Genealogisches Taschenbuch aristokratisch-jüdischer heiraten of 1914, attempted a comprehensive survey of those families of Jewish ancestry who were members of the titled European nobility (and a handful of non-European royalty or nobility). These were published at a time when the prestige and influence of European Jewry was at its highest and represented pride in their achievements since Jewish emancipation. Unhappily, these rare publications were later to be used by the nazis to identify families and individuals for extermination and many copies of these publications were destroyed both by nazi fanatics and by those Jewish families who had once been proud to have been included.

    Birth dates were indicated with the hexagonal Star of David, while a Jewish tomb stone symbol indicated who died in the Jewish faith, and a Cross those who died in the Christian faith. Marriage dates were indicated with two bold rings interlocking if husband and wife both had Jewish blood, while a bold ring with an outline ring indicated whether only one of the partners was of Jewish ancestry. Two opposite pointing horizontal arrows indicated divorce, reflecting a Biblical passage “if thou take the right hand, then I will go to the left”. The genealogical section of the Semi-Gotha was preceded by a page with the swastika symbol – which meant something very different in 1913-14 and whose terrible implications were as yet unimaginable. The frontispiece illustration of the 1913 edition was a portrait of Benjamin Disraeli, 1st (and last) Earl of Beaconsfield.

    The families named are sometimes included with titles whose origins are unknown, and in some cases were assumed. It also included families whose Jewish origins were at best uncertain and often mythical (Macdonald, for example). The Semi-Gotha generally gives anyone claiming a title the benefit of the doubt. This list when completed will include all those families listed in these publications (this author has made some comments in a few cases where the alleged Jewish ancestry of someone has been doubted by reputable scholars):

    This list does not follow exactly the format of the original work but, with the exception of the first named family, places them alphabetically by family name.

    Ethiopia, Emperor of – Menelik II, King of Kings, born 1844 (all of whose family, including wives and husband of Princes and Princesses were included as being of Jewish ancestry).

    Aguado, Alejandro José Aguado (1784-1842) created Marques de Marismas del Quadalquivir and Visconde de Monterno. Titles inherited (but not rehabilitated) by Napoleon de Talleyrand-Perigord, 2nd Duke of Montmorency.

    Aguilar, Catholic converts in 1720, created Barons and recognized as such by the Emperor 1726.

    Aldobrandini, Princes – in the male line a branch of the Borghese family, considered of ancient Jewish origin.

    Antonelli, produced a Cardinal, Giacomo Antonelli.

    Arbetta, Counts of Arbetta (San Marino).

    Arnim, Herren von, converts (and in Disraeli’s novel, Coningsby, a Countess von Arnim is one of the characters).

    Avigdor, (of the line of Aaron), – Count Salomon Henri d’Avigdor (supposedly) created a Prince by Napoleon III, although as the S-G admits, this title was not listed officially in France.

    Avigdor, Counts, merged with Goldschmidt family.

    Avigdor, (of the line of Aaron), Dukes of Acquaviva – Ancestry traced to a leading Prague Rabbi in the 14th century, Nobles since 1860 (San Marino), Duke of Acquaviva (San Marino 1899), Georg Avigdor, Duke of Acquaviva, Papal Chamberlain.

    Bardeau, formerly Kaufmann, Papal Counts, Herren auf Kornberg bei Feldbach in Steiermark.

    Bagration, Princes (of the line of Jehuda) – the S-G includes the entire family but only lists a few members, including Prince Constantine who married Princess Tatiana of Russia.

    Barrême, 16th century converts., styled Counts de Barrême.

    Baruch de Lousada, Dukes of Lousada (? Of the line of Moses), Isaac, Baron Baruch, Duke of Lousada, by his cousin Lydia Baruch de Lousada, parents of Emmanuel, Duke of Lousada who married Honorine Lejeune (also of Jewish ancestry).

    Benedetti, Noble (1869), Vincent (1817-1891) a distinguished French public servant and Ambassador to Berlin.

    Benyovsky, Lithuanian Counts, One served as a distinguished General in the 1780s.

    Bernadotte, Kings of Sweden – it is argued by the S-G that the Bernadotte family were originally Jewish, but they are listed as such only in a footnote.

    Berthier, Dukes of Wagram ?, descended from Alexandre Berthier, Duke of Wagram, Napoleon’s faithful aide. His Jewish ancestry was uncertain, hence the (?). Napoleon, 2nd Duke of Wagram (1810-1887), Alexandre, 3rd Duke of Wagram (1832-) named.

    Bethusy-Huc, Counts, Prussia 1859. Originally Huc, styled Marquis de Bethusy, and later Count de Bethusy-Huc.

    Bielski von Olbrachcice, Counts (Austria) 8 July 1895, Catholic converts in 1764; named Julius, 1st Count (b. 1837) father of Julius (b. 1862, m. 1904 Princess Elenore Jablonowska, parents of Hedwig b. 1905 and Roman b. 1906).

    Blanc, Count de (Papal), François, Count de Blanc, father of Marie-Felicie, who in 1880 married Prince Roland Napoleon Bonaparte. The latter were parents of Princess Marie Bonaparte, b. 1882, who m. 1900 Prince George of Greece.

    Bombelles, Count & Marquis de, Baron de la Motte, Catholic since the 15th century; named among others Marc Marie Marquis de Bombelles, b. 1744 father of Charles-Rene, Comte de Bombelles b. 1785, Master of the Household and later husband of Marie-Louise, duchess of Parma, and Henri François, Comte de B, b. 1789.

    Borghese, Princes – Originally from Germany, becoming Catholics in the late 14th or early 15th centuries. Princes of Sulmona, etc.

    Borgia, Spanish and Italian lines of the family descended from Pope Alexander VI, originally Rodrigo Langolo. Created Dukes of Gandia. No names given of current members although both survive.

    Burnay, styled Counts, settled in England and Portugal.

    Cahen d’Anvers, Count (Papal title 1867), of the line of Aaron, for the Antwerp banker Joseph Mayer Cahen, father of Raphael, 2nd Count, father of (1) Irene, m. Baron Etienne Gourgaud de Taillis, (2) Raphaele (1874-1899) m. 1891 Prince Ferdinand de Faucigny-Lucinge; (3) a daughter married Count MoiseNissim de Camondo.

    Cahen de Porre Absina, Counts Cahen and Marquesses di Porre Absina (Italy).

    Cancrin, Nobles (Austria 1786) and Count (Russia), converts in the mid-18th century, settled in Russia and Germany. Georg, 1st Count Cancrin(1774-1845), General in the Russian Army 1812 and Finance Minister in 1823. The German branch was only Noble and several were living at the time of publication.

    Cassis-Faraone, Counts (Austria 1783) converts since the late 18th century; married into Attems and Mels-Colloredo families; a branch settled in Italy.

    Castrioti, (of the same family as the famous George Castrioti Scanderbeg, ruler of Albania), lines in Serbia, Albania, Naples and Venice.

    Catti, Venetian Nobles, possibly extinct.

    Cheviers, Counts (Papal), originally Fischer, France & Germany.

    Cohen, Count (Portugal), for Edward Cohen, of Pretoria, South Africa.

    Consolati, Nobles (Bohemia 160), Reichsgraf von Consolati von und zu Heligenbrunn und Bauhof, 3 Aug 1790, probably formerly Cohen, 16th century converts, Another branch settled in Bolsano and Trieste.

    Crouy, and Croy-Chanel, (not connected with Croy family) (formerly Gerothwohl), Converts to Catholicism since 1800, Nobles, not connected to the French and Hungarian families of Counts of Crouy-Chanel.

    Disraeli, Earl of Beaconsfield, Benjamin (1804-1881), His grandfather Benjamin Disraeli (1730-1816) settled in England in 1748, father of Isaak (1766-1848), converted to Anglicanism 1817. Benjamin, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield (1876), was sometime Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

    Dobrowolski, Counts (Nobles, styled Counts), Russian and Polish family.

    Doret, Count (Papal), for Léon Doret, d. 1913.

    Economos, Count (Papal), Alexandre, Count de Economos, in the service of the Sultan (living 1913).

    Eppstein, Nobles in Bohemia, Aron and Albrecht Eppstein named as living 1620, possibly Counts of Lengheim (??).

    Feuerstein, Barons 1757, Counts Feuerstein von Feuersteinsberg 1793 (Bregenz, converts 16th century),

    Fischer von Treuberg, Noble (1807, Prince-Bishop of Eichstatt), Barons (Saxe-Coburg 1809 and Hohenzollern-Siemaringen 1810), Counts (Saxony 1817). Many named (still extant).

    Fonseca, Noble (styled Counts), Netherlands.

    Frangipani, Counts, Dukes of Mirabello (of the line of Ruben), existing members not named.

    Frise, Count (Papal) original Messels, Henri Messels, Comte de Frise, d. 1893.

    Gallifet, Marquis de, (possibly Jewish) named Gaston, Marquis de Gallifet, b. 1830.

    Gamerra de Gambamar, Noble (HRE 1764), Baron (HRE 1790), Counts (Papal ) (Converts 1764), named several.

    Goez, Noble (Regensburg 1654), Baron (HRE 1672), Count (HRE 1693), (formerly Trooch) many named.

    Goschen, Viscount (UK 1900), (converts) junior line knighted, England and Germany; George Goschen (1831-1907) raised to the Peerage as Viscount Goschen after being 1st Lord of the Admiralty, Ambassador in Constantinople, and Chancellor of the Exchequer.

    Gradelli, branch of Frangipani (of the line of Ruben), No titles given.

    Groi-Hoch, mentioning a Prince Groi-Hoch, with no further information.

    Handhierh, Prince – a mention of a Prince Handhierh, with a ?

    Harbleicher, Counts (styled), Morris Harbliecher in Paris.

    Hebrail, styled Marquis, from the Languedoc.

    Henckel von Donnersmarck, Counts and Princes, named as 15th century converts. It also names Guido, Count Henckel, 1st Prince of Donnersmarck, who married (1) 1871 Blanche Lachmann (d. 1884) and left issue by his 2nd (non-Jewish) wife.

    Hierschel-Minervi, Nobles 1857 Baron (1877 Saxe-Meiningen), (converts), styled Counts in Italy, Hiromi Hierschel of this family was a moderately successful painter.

    Kaiserling, styled Counts, naming Moser Kaiserling who claimed to be a branch of the Keyserlingk family.

    Königswarter, Baron (Saxe-Coburg-Gotha 1858), Count (Papal) and in France the adoption of the particule.

    Kreuz, Nobles (styled Counts), Germany and Russia.

    Kubinsky von Hohenlubin, Nobles (HRE 1646, Austria 1884), Marquis (Papal 1912), Albrecht, Marquis Kubinsky, Ritter von Hohenlubin, b. 1885.

    Künigl von Ehrenburg, Counts, Barons von Ehrenburg und Barth (although not of Princely rank included in th princely section), listed two current members, 16th century converts.

    Levis-Mirepoix, Dukes of San Fernando Luis, sometime Dukes of Levis-Mirepoix. (Their alleged Jewish descent has been doubted by several eminent genealogists).

    Lusignan, Princes de (*in fact an entirely bogus claimant to this title, the pseudo Prince Michael David, although the editors of the S-G did not seem to know this, nor the Czar who seems to have accorded some recognition to the title – their Jewish origin supposed only by virtue of their alleged Armenian descent in the female line, but this was also spurious).

    Macdonald, Duke of Taranto, (according to the S-G the Macdonald family were originally of Jewish origin). Included mention also of the Scottish Macdonalds.

    Malcolm, (of the line of Aaron), a gentleman who called himself Imperial Highness and Prince.

    Massena, Prince of Essling, Duke of Rivoli (of the line of Karaiiten), Victor Massena, 4th Prince of Essling, Duke of Rivoli, married 1882 Paula, widow of the Duke of Elchingen, herself of Jewish birth (Heine-Furtado). Of their two daughters, Anne married the Marquis d’Albufera, heir to the Duke of Albufera (Suchet), and Victoire married the Marquis de Montesquiou.

    Matteis (of the line of Ruben), no title given but listed in Rome and Naples.

    Meschtchersky, Princes, no current names listed, but still extant today.

    Monroy di Belmonte,

    Monse, a Prince Eugen named.

    Napoleon III, by virtue of the claim that his real father, lover of Queen Hortense, was Carel Henri Berhuel-Badinet (born 1764). The Empress Eugenie, born de Guzman, Condes de Teba, was of Jewish convert ancestry.

    Nazos, originally Miquez, a Spanish Jewish convert family, created Dukes by Selim II, Ottoman Emperor.

    Nissim de Camondo, Counts and Nobles Italy 1867; named Abraham Salvator 1st Count (d. 1889); Moise, 2nd Count married ….Cahen d’Anvers (q.v.); Isaac, 3rd Count b.1911.

    Papareschi, 14th century Roman Jewish converts, now extinct – no title given.

    Petrovich-Niegoch of Montenegro, Princes (later King), existing members listed.

    Pierleoni (of the line of Ruben or Jehuda), prominent Roman Jewish noble family, extinct in 1582.

    Salamanca (Salamon), Counts of Ortenburg in 16th and 17th century Carinthia, originally of Spanish descent. Created Barons of Freyenstein and Carlspach in 1523 and Counts of Ortenburg in 1524.

    Sassoon, Baronets 1890, 1909 and 1911 (Mosaic, titled “Prince of the Captivity” by the Ottoman Emperor). Naming Jacon David Sassoon, Sir Albert Sassoon, 1st Bart (1817-1896), his son Sir Edward Sassoon, Bart (1856-1912), Arthur Sassoon, Sir Philip Sassoon, 3rd Bart (b. 1888), Sybil Sassoon (b. 1894, listed as marrying Earl of Rocksavage, later Marquess of Cholmondeley), Sir Jacon Sassoon (b. 1853), Edward Sassoon (b. 1853), etc.

    Soult, Dukes of Dalmatia, descended from Marshal Soult, claimed to be of Jewish descent.

    Torlonia, converts at the end of the 18th century, ennobled 1794, Patricians 1809, Princes 1814, Dukes 1847. Divided into two lines of Dukes Torlonia and Princes of Civitelli Cesi The junior line became extinct in the male line and was substituted with Borghese, also of Jewish descent (q.v.), acquiring the titles of Prince Torlonia, Prince of Fucino, Canino and Musignano (these last inherited on the extinction of the male line of Bonaparte di Canino) The title of Prince of Civitelli Cesi, however, reverted to the senior line, being attached to a male majorat.

    Trasmondi, Marchese d’Introdaqua, Catholics since the 10th century. Franz Trasmondi, Marchese d’Introdaqua, born 1881.

  14. Renee says:

    O’Ross
    Ross
    Rose
    Ras
    Raz
    Soros
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ross_Castle

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Ross,_2nd_Lord_Ross
    Ross was the son and heir of Robert Ross (the son of John Ross, 1st Lord Ross) and Agnes Melville, daughter and heiress of Thomas Melville of Melville. The Rosses of Halkhead, or Hawkhead, in Renfrewshire, were a Lowland family, not apparently related to the Earls of Ross or the Highland family of Ross of Balnagown.[1]

    [edit] CareerRoss succeeded to the peerage in 1501 on the death of his grandfather, whom his father had pre-deceased. He had earlier been retoured heir of his mother in the barony of Melville on 16 May 1496. Over the years that followed, he obtained a number of charters and sasines in respect of extensive estates in and around Renfrewshire and Linlithgow.[1]

    It is recorded that James IV visited Ross at Halkhead on 1 April 1506 (on which occasion the King treated Ross’s masons to a drink) and that he was again in the King’s company (playing games and shooting the culverin) in February and March 1507/8.[1]

    He was killed at the Battle of Flodden Field on 9 September 1513. [2]

    [edit] FamilyRoss married (before 27 September 1490) Christian Edmonstone, daughter of Sir Archibald Edmonstone of Duntreath. She survived him and lived until May 1551. Lord Ross had at least four recorded children:

    Ninian Ross, 3rd Lord Ross
    Andrew Ross of Wardlaw
    Thomas Ross
    Helen Ross, who married John Blair of that Ilk

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earl_of_Ross

    The Mormaer or Earl of Ross was the leader of a medieval Gaelic lordship in northern Scotland, roughly between the River Oykel and the River Beauly.

    Contents [hide]
    1 Origins and transfers
    2 List of mormaers and earls of Ross
    2.1 Early mormaers/earls of Ross
    2.2 Earls of Ross, Creation of 1481
    2.3 Earls of Ross, Creation of 1565
    2.4 Earls of Ross, Creation of 1600
    2.5 Earls of Ross, Irish Creation of 1772
    3 References
    4 External links

    [edit] Origins and transfersInitially, it was probably confined entirely to Easter Ross to an area between the Dornoch Firth and the Cromarty Firth, i.e. the Tarbat peninsula and the parishes of Kiltearn (equal to the modern Evanton) and Alness. The earliest man known to have the comital title to Ross, was the rebel MacHeth.

    However, the true founder was the famous Fearchar, Earl of Ross, from the Ó Beólláin (O’Beolain, Boland, Bolan) family, also known as ‘Fearchar Mac-an-t-sagairt’ (meaning “son of the priest”) of Applecross, who attained the title probably sometime in the 1220s by destroying the “MacHeths” and “Meic Uilleim”, two rebel kinship groups. His son and successor Uilleam I, Earl of Ross greatly expanded the Mormaerdom, conquering territory from the Kingdom of Norway.

    The role of Chief of Clan Ross was with the earls of Ross until Uilleam III, Earl of Ross died in 1372. (From then onwards the chieftenship of Clan Ross fell to a junior line descended from Aodh, Earl of Ross d.1334). When Uilleam III, Earl of Ross died in 1372 the Earldom then passed to is daughter Euphemia I, Countess of Ross, who became the wife of Sir Walter Leslie. The position of Earl of Ross stayed with the Leslie line until the death of Alexander Leslie, Earl of Ross in 1402. The Earldom eventually passed into the hands of the Clan Donald chief, the Lord of the Isles.

    The Earldom later passed from the MacDonald, Lord of the Isles to the crown and the royal House of Stewart.

    The title remained in crown hands until, on 23 January 1481, it was awarded to James Stewart, Duke of Ross, the second son of James III of Scotland. He was simultaneously created Lord Ardmannoch and Lord Brechin and Navar. He was later created Duke of Ross.

    The fourth creation was on 20 May 1565, for Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, who was simultaneously created Lord Ardmannoch. Shortly thereafter (20 July 1565) he was created Duke of Albany. After his murder at Kirk o’ Field House, he was succeeded by his infant son James VI of Scotland, whose accession as James VI a few months later returned the peerages to the crown.

    Upon the creation of the Prince Charles as Duke of Albany on 2 December 1600, he was also invested with the subsidiary titles of Marquess of Ormonde, Earl of Ross, and Lord Ardmannoch. He was crowned as Charles I in 1625, and the titles again returned to the crown.

    However, Brown (1834) states: “Earl of Ross (Extinct) was claimed in 1778 by Munro Ross of Pitcalnie, as male descendant of Hugh Ross of Rarichus, brother of Aodh, Earl of Ross (d.1334).”

    [edit] List of mormaers and earls of Ross[edit] Early mormaers/earls of RossMalcolm MacHeth (d. 1168)
    With the crown
    Fearchar, Earl of Ross (d. 1249)
    Uilleam I, Earl of Ross (d. 1274)
    Uilleam II, Earl of Ross (d. 1333)
    Aodh, Earl of Ross (d. 1334) (From who descend the chiefs of Clan Ross).
    Uilleam III, Earl of Ross (d. 1372)
    Euphemia I, Countess of Ross (d. c. 1394)
    Married Sir Walter Leslie, Lord of Ross
    Alexander Leslie, Earl of Ross (d. 1402)
    Euphemia II, Countess of Ross (d. a. 1424) (resigned c. 1415)
    John Stewart, 2nd Earl of Buchan (d. 1424)
    Mariota, Countess of Ross (d. c. 1429) (sister of Alexander Leslie, Earl of Ross d.1402)
    m. Domhnall of Islay, Lord of the Isles
    Alexander of Islay, Earl of Ross (d. 1448)
    John of Islay, Earl of Ross (d. c. 1498) (surrendered 1476)
    [edit] Earls of Ross, Creation of 1481James Stewart, Earl of Ross (1476–1504)
    [edit] Earls of Ross, Creation of 1565Henry Stuart, Earl of Ross (1545–1567) (later Duke of Albany and King-consort of Scotland)
    James Stuart, Earl of Ross (1566–1625) (became King in 1567)
    [edit] Earls of Ross, Creation of 1600Charles Stuart, Earl of Ross (1600–1649) (became King in 1625)
    [edit] Earls of Ross, Irish Creation of 1772See Gore Baronets of Magherabegg

  15. Renee says:

    Family of LOVE;
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord_Lovat
    Lord Lovat is a title in the Peerage of Scotland. It was created in 1458 for Hugh Fraser.

    Baron Fraser of Lovat, near the eastern bank of the Beauly, Inverness-shire, where stood the tower and fort of Lovat founded in 1230, believed to have been conferred by James I., on Hugh Fraser of Lovat, grandson of Simon Fraser, the first of the Frasers of Lovat.

    Simon Fraser fell at the battle of Halidonhill, 19th July 1333, married Margaret, an heir of the earl of Caithness, and acquired, in consequence, large possessions in the north. He is supposed to have been a branch of the Frasers of Oliver castle in the county of Peebles, as his son had possessions in that county. This son, Hugh Fraser of Lovat, had four sons; Alexander, who died unmarried; Hugh, created a lord of parliament, under the title of Lord Fraser of Lovat; John, ancestor of the Frasers of Knock in Ayrshire; and another son, ancestor of the Frasers of Foyers.

    The first Lord Lovat, Hugh, was one of the hostages for James I., on his return to Scotland in 1424, and in 1431 he was appointed high sheriff of the county of Inverness.

    The second Lord Lovat, son of 1st Lord Lovat, also named Hugh, was father of Thomas, third lord; Alexander, ancestor of the Frasers of Fanaline, the Frasers of Leadclune, baronets; and other families of the name.

    The third Lord Lovat, Thomas, held the office of justiciary of the north in the reign of James IV., and died 21st October 1524. He had four sons; Thomas, master of Lovat, killed at Battle of Flodden, 9th September 1513, unmarried; Hugh, fourth Lord Lovat; Alexander, fifth lord; and William Fraser of Struy, ancestor of several families of the name in Inverness-shire.

    The title descended in a direct line for nine sequential generations from 1458 until the death of the ninth Lord in 1696. He was succeeded by his great-uncle, the tenth Lord. In 1697 the latter’s son, Simon Fraser, known as Simon “the Fox”, kidnapped and forcefully married the late ninth Lord’s widow, the former Lady Amelia Murray, only daughter of John Murray, 1st Marquess of Atholl. However, Lady Lovat’s powerful family, the Murrays, were angered, and prosecuted Fraser, who fled the country. Fraser was convicted in absentia, attainted, and sentenced to death. In 1715, however, Fraser supported the Government against the Jacobite uprising and was rewarded by being pardoned for his crimes. In 1730, he won litigation seeking to confirm his title of Lord Lovat. In 1745, however, Lord Lovat participated in The ’45 against the Crown and was therefore sentenced to death. He was beheaded on 9 April 1747, aged 80, on Tower Hill in London, becoming the last man to die in this manner. His titles, furthermore, were forfeit. (Fraser was also created Duke of Fraser, Marquess of Beaufort, Earl of Stratherrick and Upper Tarf, Viscount of the Aird and Strathglass and Lord Lovat and Beaulieu in the Jacobite Peerage of Scotland by James Francis Edward Stuart (titular King James III of England and VIII of Scotland) in 1740.)

    His eldest son and namesake Simon Fraser became a General in the British Army. He obtained a full pardon but was not restored to the title. His younger brother Archibald Campbell Fraser was a Colonel in the Army and would have succeeded but for the attainder. On his death in 1815 the title was claimed by his kinsman Thomas Fraser, a descendant of Thomas Fraser, second son of the fourth Lord. In 1837 he was created Baron Lovat, of Lovat in the County of Inverness, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. However, it was not until 1854 that the attainder of the eleventh Lord was reversed, and Thomas Fraser became the twelfth Lord Lovat. He was succeeded by his son, the thirteenth Lord, who served as Lord Lieutenant of Inverness. His eldest son, the fourteenth Baron, was a soldier and politician and notably held office as Under-Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs from 1926 to 1927. He was succeeded by his eldest son, the fifteenth Baron. He was a prominent soldier and distinguished himself during the Second World War. As of 2010[update] the titles are held by his grandson, the sixteenth Lord, who succeeded in 1994.

    The Conservative politician Sir Hugh Fraser was the younger son of the fourteenth Lord. Another member of the family was Sir Ian Fraser, Chairman of Rolls-Royce Motors. He was the son of Hon. Alastair Thomas Joseph Fraser, younger son of the thirteenth Lord.

    Clan FraserThe Lordship of Lovat has for some time been linked to the Chiefship of Clan Fraser. The former family seat was Beaufort Castle in northern Scotland. The numbering of the Scottish Lordship used by Clan Fraser differs from the legal numbering in that it ignores the attainder of 1747—1854, with the result that the 16th Lord is termed by them “18th Lord Lovat”.[1][2][3]

    Lords Lovat (1458); Barons Lovat (1837)
    Coat of Arms of the Lord LovatHugh Fraser, 1st Lord Lovat (d. c. 1460)
    Thomas Fraser, 2nd Lord Lovat (d. 1524)
    Hugh Fraser, 3rd Lord Lovat (d. 1544)
    Alexander Fraser, 4th Lord Lovat (d. 1558)
    Hugh Fraser, 5th Lord Lovat (d. 1577)
    Simon Fraser, 6th Lord Lovat (c. 1572–1633)
    Hugh Fraser, 7th Lord Lovat (d. 1646)
    Hugh Fraser, 8th Lord Lovat (1643–1672)
    Hugh Fraser, 9th Lord Lovat (1666–1696)
    Thomas Fraser, 10th Lord Lovat (1636–1699)
    Simon Fraser, 11th Lord Lovat (c. 1667–1747) (Lordship forfeited in 1747)
    Simon Fraser (d. 1782)
    Archibald Campbell Fraser (d. 1815)
    Thomas Alexander Fraser, 12th Lord Lovat, 1st Baron Lovat (1802–1875) (Lordship restored in 1854; Barony Lovat created in 1837)
    Simon Fraser, 13th Lord Lovat, 2nd Baron Lovat (1828–1887)
    Simon Joseph Fraser, 14th Lord Lovat, 3rd Baron Lovat (1871–1933)
    Brigadier Simon Christopher Joseph Fraser, 15th Lord Lovat, 4th Baron Lovat (1911–1995)
    Simon Fraser, 16th Lord Lovat, 5th Baron Lovat (b. 1977)
    The Heir Presumptive is the present holder’s younger brother: Hon. Jack Fraser, Master of Lovat (b. 1984)

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_Fraser,_1st_Lord_Lovat
    Hugh Fraser, 1st Lord Lovat (d. c. 1500), was a Scottish peer, and the Chief of the Clan Fraser.

    Fraser was the son of Thomas Fraser, 5th laird of Lovat, and Lady Janet Dunbar. His grandfather, Hugh Fraser (d. 1440) (who is sometimes referred to as “Lord Lovat”), was one of the hostages for the ransom of King James I of Scotland in 1424. He was summoned to the Scottish Parliament as Lord Lovat sometime between 1458 and 1461. He died circa 1500 and was succeeded by his son Thomas. Simon Fraser, 11th Lord Lovat, known as “Simon the Fox”, was a descendant of Lord Lovat.

    Simon Fraser, 11th Lord Lovat (c. 1667 – 9 April 1747, London), was a Scottish Jacobite and Chief of Clan Fraser, who was famous for his violent feuding and his changes of allegiance. In 1715, he had been a supporter of the House of Hanover, but in 1745 he changed sides and supported the Stuart claim on the crown of the United Kingdom. Lovat was among the Highlanders defeated at the Battle of Culloden and convicted of treason against the Crown. He was the last man in Britain to be publicly beheaded,[1] on Tower Hill, London.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simon_McTavish

  16. Renee says:

    From wiki above*

    Simon Fraser fell at the battle of Halidonhill, 19th July 1333, married Margaret, an heir of the earl of Caithness, and acquired, in consequence, large possessions in the north. He is supposed to have been a branch of the Frasers of Oliver castle in the county of Peebles, as his son had possessions in that county. This son, Hugh Fraser of Lovat, had four sons; Alexander, who died unmarried; Hugh, created a lord of parliament, under the title of Lord Fraser of Lovat; John, ancestor of the Frasers of Knock in Ayrshire; and another son, ancestor of the Frasers of Foyers.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earl_of_Caithness

    Earl of Caithness is a title that has been created several times in the Peerage of Scotland, and has a very complex history. Its first grant, in the modern sense as to have been counted in strict lists of peerages, is now generally held to have taken place in favor of Maol Íosa V, Earl of Strathearn, in 1334, although in the true circumstances of 14th century, this presumably was just a recognition of his hereditary right to the ancient earldom/ mormaership of Caithness. The next year, however, all of his titles were declared forfeit for treason.

    Earlier, Caithness had been intermittently held, presumably always as fief of Scotland, by the Norse Earls of Orkney, at least since the days of the childhood of Thorfinn Sigurdsson in c 1020, but possibly already several decades before. The modern reconstruction of holders of peerage earldoms do not usually include those of Mormaerdom of Caithness, although there is no essential difference between them and, for example, those of mormaers of Lennox, mormaers of Strathearn and mormaers of Angus.

    The next grant after Maol Íosa was to David Stewart, a younger son of Robert II of Scotland. His heiress, Euphemia, resigned the title in 1390 in favour of her uncle Walter, 1st Earl of Atholl. Walter himself resigned the title in 1428, in favour of his son Allan, but he retained the earldom of Atholl for himself. Upon Allan’s death, Walter again came to hold both earldoms. However, both were lost when he was executed for high treason in 1437, his titles being forfeit.

    The third creation of the title was for Sir George Crichton in 1452, but he surrendered the title in the same year. The final creation of the earldom was made in 1455 for William Sinclair, 3rd Earl of Orkney. He surrendered the Orkney title and all associated lands to James III in 1470, in return for the Castle of Ravenscraig, in Fife. James III had in 1469 received the rights of the king of Norway to Orkney territories as pledge of dowry of his wife Margaret of Denmark. In this way, the Scottish crown tightened its grip to Orkney and Shetland, a hitherto Norwegian territory, by moving all other important holders away. Six years later, Earl William wished to disinherit his eldest son, who was known as “The Waster.” Therefore, so that his earldom would not pass to him, he resigned the title in favour of his younger son, another William. General Arthur St. Clair was reportedly descended from the 4th Earl of Caithness.

    George, sixth Earl of the Sinclair line, was the last Earl to cause a disturbance in the normal succession of the title. In 1672, he agreed that, at his death, all of his lands and titles would pass to Sir John Campbell, who was his creditor. In 1677, the sixth Earl died, and King Charles II granted him a patent creating him Earl of Caithness. Later, however, the sixth Earl’s heir, also named George, was confirmed in his titles by the law. Therefore, in order to compensate for the loss of the earldom, Charles II created Campbell Earl of Breadalbane and Holland. Thereafter, the earldom of Caithness has passed solely within the Sinclair family, without any further resignations or other irregularities.

    The Earl of Caithness also holds the title of Lord Berriedale, which was created in the Peerage of Scotland in 1455. That title is used as a courtesy title for the Earl’s eldest son and heir.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mormaership
    The etymology is variously debated as “Great Steward” (incorporating Gaelic and Picto-Latin), or “Sea Lord” (perhaps defenders against Vikings). Historians do not know if the institution was Gaelic or Pictish. It is notable mormaer occurs only in the post-Pictish period, so it is difficult to sustain any argument for Pictish origins. There is also debate whether mormaer was simply the east-coast equivalent of kinglet (Gaelic: ruirí or rí). For the earliest periods, there is uncertainty about the exact difference between a mormaer and a toisech (Modern Scottish Gaelic tòiseach ‘chief’). The earliest Scottish Latin sources use thanus (thane) for toisech. This word was adopted from the Anglo-Saxon lands to the south. It is possible both thanus, comes, mormaer, and toisech, all originally meant similar things, or at least were not part of a stratified hierarchy.

    [edit] Earliest MormaersThe office of mormaer is first mentioned in the context of the Battle of Corbridge (918), in the Annals of Ulster. The first individual named mormaer was Dubacan of Angus, one of the companions of Amlaib, the son of King Causantín II (Constantine II). His death at the Battle of Brunanburh (937) is recorded in the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba. He is mentioned as Mormaer of Angus (Gaelic:”Mormair Oengusa’, or ‘Mormaer Óengus).

    Another three mormaers are named, though without provinces, in the Annals of Tigernach, s.a. 976. However, the earliest mormaers of each province are generally only hazily, if at all, known until the 12th century, by which time mormaer is being referred to in Latin documents as comes. From the 12th century, eight ‘old’ mormaer dynasties are known to be hereditary, continuous and no longer fragmentary, and also additionally the dynasties of Charraig. Dunbarra, Cataidh, and Moireabh had yet older dynasties.

    Pre-12th century dynasties:

    mormaers of Cataibh
    mormaers of Moireabh
    ‘mormaers’ of Lodainn/Dunbarra
    ‘Traditional’ mormaerdoms (established dynasty in the 12th century, but not proven earlier):

    mormaers of Marr
    mormaers of Buchan
    mormaers of Athal
    mormaers of Aonghais
    mormaers of Fiobh
    mormaers of Sratheireann
    mormaers of Moneteadhaich
    mormaers of Leamhnachd
    ‘Outsider’:

    mormaers of Charraig
    much later, creation in the 13th century:

    mormaers of Ros
    [edit] Mormaer, Comes and “Earl”This has led to the erroneous impression that “Mormaerdoms” were scrapped and replaced by “Earldoms.” In fact, Comes (literally Companion, in the feudal age Count, which word derives from it) is just a Franco-Latin word used on the British Isles to render either Mormaer or Earl into Latin (with French). For instance, several Irish sources call King Robert Bruce Mormaer (of Carrick) in the 14th century. As this is not an Irish word, it is clear that the word is being used by the Scots for the office. Moreover, the term is still recorded as being used for the “Earl” of Lennox a century later. On the other hand, the West Germanic word Earl is not recorded as being in use in Scotland until the mid-14th century, and then only in an English literary text.

    As a result, scholars now recognize that Mormaer was the vernacular word used by the Gaels. Earl on the other hand is an English or Scots translation, alien to the Gaelic tradition.

    [edit] Mormaers and other LordshipsA Mormaerdom was not simply a regional lordship, it was a regional lordship with official comital rank. This is why other lordships, many of them more powerful, such as those of Lords of Galloway, Argyll and Innse Gall, are not and were not called Mormaerdoms or Earldoms.

    [edit] List of Mormaers
    This map pertains to the Scotland of the reign of Alexander II. The map is a rough guide only, and not intended to be 100% accurate.This list does not include Orkney, which was a Norwegian Earldom, and became ruled by Scotland in the 15th century. Sutherland might be included, but it was created only late, and for a possibly foreign family (see Earl of Sutherland)

    Mormaerdom/Kingdom of Moray
    Mormaerdom of Fife
    Mormaerdom of Strathearn
    Mormaerdom of Angus
    Mormaerdom of Atholl
    Mormaerdom of Buchan
    Mormaerdom of Caithness, See Earl of Orkney
    For Mormaerdom of Carrick, See Earl of Carrick
    For the Anglo-Scottish Mormaerdom of Lothian/Dunbar, See Earl of Dunbar
    Mormaerdom of Lennox
    Mormaerdom of Mar
    ? Mormaerdom of Mearns
    Mormaerdom of Menteith
    Mormaerdom of Ross

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Irish_clans

    • Renee says:

      Sinclair- St Clair ?

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_Ford_Sinclair
      Harry Sinclair was born in Benwood, West Virginia, now a suburb of the city of Wheeling. Sinclair grew up in Independence, Kansas. The son of a pharmacist, after finishing high school, he entered the pharmacy department of the University of Kansas, at Lawrence. He was working as a pharmacist in 1901 when the business failed. He then began selling lumber for derricks in the oil fields of southeastern Kansas. On the side, he started speculating in oil leases.[1] The opportunity in the rapidly expanding oil industry saw him become a lease broker and acquire an interest in the White Oil Company. In 1904, Sinclair married Elizabeth Farrell of Independence, Kansas. By the time he was thirty, he had become a millionaire.[1]

      [edit] Oil businessIn 1910, four Tulsa businessmen: Eugene Frank Blaise, Charles J. Wrightsman, William Connelly, and Harry F. Sinclair bought the failed Farmers National Bank in Tulsa. They created a new entity, Exchange National Bank, and named Sinclair as President.[2] This bank, later renamed as the National Bank of Tulsa, was a forerunner of the present Bank of Oklahoma.

      On May 1, 1916, the highly successful Sinclair formed Sinclair Oil from the assets of eleven small petroleum companies. In the same year, he bought the Cudahy Refining Company of Chicago, owner of several oil pipelines and refineries.[3] By the end of the 1920s, Sinclair Oil refineries had a production capacity of 80,000 barrels a day and had built almost 900 miles (1,400 km) of oil pipelines. Operations were expanded in various areas including a 12,000-acre (49 km2) coal mining property. The company was ranked as the seventh largest oil company in the United States and the largest in the Midwest.[3] Harry Sinclair’s business acumen made him an important member of the local business community and he helped organize the State Bank of Commerce, which later was acquired by the First National Bank of Independence, of which Sinclair served on the board of directors.

      [edit] Organized sportsSinclair was one of the main financers of baseball’s Federal League.[4] He was the principal owner of that league’s Indianapolis franchise. Following the 1914 season, he purchased the remainder of the team and moved them to Newark, New Jersey, where they became the Newark Pepper.[5] After the season, the Federal League cut a deal with the other two baseball leagues. Sinclair reportedly made $2 million on his investment.[6]

      Sinclair invested a substantial amount of money in thoroughbred race horses, acquiring the prestigious Rancocas Stable in Jobstown in southwest New Jersey from the estate of Pierre Lorillard IV. One of the most successful stables in the late 19th century, Sinclair again made it a major force in thoroughbred racing during the 1920s. Under trainer Sam Hildreth, Sinclair’s stable won the Kentucky Derby and three Belmont Stakes. Such was the fame of Rancocas Stable that the Pennsylvania Railroad named baggage car #5858 in its honor. Two of the stable’s colts, Grey Lag and Zev, are in the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame.

      [edit] ScandalMain article: Teapot Dome scandal
      Harry Sinclair’s high-profile image as a reputable American business leader and sportsman came under question in April 1922 when the Wall Street Journal reported that United States Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall had granted an oil lease to Sinclair Oil without competitive bidding. The oil field lease was for government land in Wyoming that had been created as an emergency reserve for the United States Navy. What became known as the Teapot Dome scandal, ultimately led to a United States Senate establishing a Committee on Public Lands and Surveys to conduct hearings into the circumstances surrounding the government oil lease. The result was a finding of fraud and corruption which led to a number of civil lawsuits and criminal charges against Harry Sinclair and others. In 1927 the United States Supreme Court declared the Sinclair oil lease had been corruptly obtained and ordered it canceled.

      Two weeks after Harry Sinclair’s trial began in October 1927, it abruptly ended when the judge declared a mistrial following evidence presented by the government prosecutors showing that Sinclair had hired a detective agency to shadow each member of the jury. Sinclair was charged with contempt of court, the case eventually winding up before the United States Supreme Court who, on June 3, 1929 [3], upheld Sinclair’s conviction. He was fined and sentenced to six and a half months[7] in prison, which he served as prisoner #10,520,[8] at the District of Columbia jail. While in prison, Sinclair was allowed to work as both pharmacist and physician’s assistant, and it was while working within these capacities that he was allowed to be taken by car to attend to the prisoners assigned to work details at the city wharfs.[9] Public attention and perceived favoritism prompted George S. Wilson, District Director of Public Welfare, to order an end to these rides, but rumors of Sinclair’s preferential treatment continued.[10]

      In 1929, Secretary Albert B. Fall was found guilty of bribery, fined $100,000 and sentenced to one year in prison – making him the first Presidential cabinet member to go to prison for his actions in office.

      The 1996 film Killer: A Journal of Murder features a scene of Harry Sinclair in Leavenworth prison when Carl Panzram is sent there.

      [edit] Later life
      At one time, Harry F. Sinclair owned this C.P.H. Gilbert designed mansion now known as the Harry F. Sinclair House, in New York City.After serving his short prison term, Sinclair returned to his successful business. He had owned a luxurious French Renaissance-style château [4] on the southeast corner of Fifth Avenue and 79th Street in New York City. His reputation destroyed, in 1930 Sinclair sold the property. Located in the same area as several major museums, it was eventually acquired by the Ukrainian Institute of America and is now open to the public.

      Harry Ford Sinclair retired as president of Sinclair Oil and Gas Company in January 1949.[3] He died a wealthy man in Pasadena, California in 1956 and was interred in the Roman Catholic Calvary Cemetery, East Los Angeles.

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sinclair_Oil

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teapot_Dome_scandal

      http://www.nytimes.com/2005/11/02/politics/03royals-list.html?pagewanted=print&_r=0
      Guest List for the Dinner in Honor of Prince Charles and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall
      The following is the guest list for the dinner and after-dinner entertainment, as provided by the White House.

      The President and Mrs. Bush

      His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales

      Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Cornwall

      Dr. Kenneth Z. Altshuler, Stanton Sharp Professor, Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas

      Mrs. Ruth Altshuler

      The Honorable Katharine Armstrong

      Mr. Ben Love (Guest)

      Mr. Michael Beschloss, Historian

      Mrs. Afsaneh Beschloss, President and Chief Executive Officer, The Rock Creek Group

      The Honorable Nancy G. Brinker, Founding Chairman, The Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation

      Dr. Richard Merkin, Heritage Provider Network (Guest)

      Mr. Tom Brokaw, Special Correspondent, NBC News

      Mrs. Meredith Brokaw

      The Honorable George Herbert Walker Bush

      Mrs. Barbara Bush

      Miss Jenna Bush

      Mr. Henry Hager (Guest)

      Mr. Marvin P. Bush, Managing Partner, Winston Partners

      Mrs. Margaret Bush

      Mr. Neil Bush, Chairman, Ignite! Learning

      Mrs. Maria Bush

      The Reverend Kirbyjon H. Caldwell, Pastor, Windsor Village United Methodist Church

      Mrs. Suzette Caldwell

      Mr. Joseph Canizaro, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, First Bank and Trust, Chairman, Donum Dei Foundation

      Mrs. Sue Ellen Canizaro

      The Honorable Andrew H. Card, Jr., Assistant to the President and Chief of Staff

      The Reverend Kathleene B. Card, Trinity United Methodist Church

      Ms. Elizabeth L. Cheney, Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for Near Eastern Affairs, Department of State

      Mr. Philip J. Perry, General Counsel, U.S. Department of Homeland Security

      Ms. Mary Cheney

      Ms. Heather Poe (Guest)

      The Honorable Richard Cheney, Vice President of the United States

      The Honorable Lynne V. Cheney

      Mr. Andrew Cosslett, Chair, Duchy Originals, Chief Executive Officer, Intercontinental Hotels Group

      Mrs. Louise Cosslett, Windsor, Berkshire, UK

      Mr. Harlan R. Crow, Crow Holdings

      Mrs. Kathy Crow

      Mr. Oscar de la Renta, Designer

      Mrs. Anne de la Renta, Vice-Chairman, The Metropolitan Museum of Art

      Dr. David Donald, Lincoln Historian and Professor Emeritus, Harvard University

      Dr. Jennifer Groh, Professor of Psychology, Dartmouth College (Daughter-in-law)

      Mr. Llwyd Ecclestone, Jr., Chairman, Ecclestone Organization

      Mrs. Diana Ecclestone

      The Honorable Donald B. Ensenat, Chief of Protocol, United States

      Mrs. Taylor Ensenat

      The Honorable Donald L. Evans, Chief Executive Office, Financial Services Forum

      Mrs. Susan Evans

      The Honorable William S. Farish, Former American Ambassador to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

      Mrs. Sarah Farish

      Mr. Bradford M. Freeman, General Partner, Freeman Spogli & Co.

      Ms. Penelope S. Royall, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Health, Department of Health and Human Services (Guest)

      The Honorable Bill Frist, United States Senator (R/Tennessee)

      Mrs. Karyn Frist

      Sir Fred Goodwin, Group Chief Executive, The Royal Bank of Scotland Group

      Lady Joyce Goodwin, Edinburgh, Scotland

      Mr. Kelsey Grammer, Actor

      Mrs. Camille Donatacci Grammer

      The Honorable Stephen J. Hadley, Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs

      Mrs. Ann Hadley, Assistant U.S. Attorney, U.S. Department of Justice

      The Honorable Jane Harman, United States Representative (D/California)

      Mr. Brian Frank (Son)

      The Honorable J. Dennis Hastert, Speaker of the House (R/Illinois)

      Mrs. Jean Hastert

      Mr. Wallace Holladay, Jr., President, Holladay Corporation

      Mrs. Winton Holladay

      Lieutenant General Russel L. Honore, USA, Commanding General, First U.S. Army

      Mrs. Beverly Honore

      Mrs. Caroline Rose Hunt

      Mr. Charles M. Simmons (Guest)

      The Honorable Clay Johnson III, Deputy Director for Management, Office of Management and Budget

      Mrs. Anne S. Johnson, Director, Arts in Embassies Program, Department of State

      Mr. James Kidner, Assistant Private Secretary to The Prince of Wales

      Mr. Robert P. Koch, President and Chief Executive Officer, Wine Institute

      Mrs. Doro Koch

      Ms. Wendy Kopp, President and Founder, Teach for America

      Mr. Richard Barth, Jr., President, District Partnership Division, Edison Schools

      Mr. Henry R. Kravis, Founding Partner, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co.

      Mrs. Marie-Josee Kravis, President, The Museum of Modern Art

      The Honorable James C. Langdon, Jr., Attorney, Akin Gump Strauss Hauer and Feld LLP

      Mrs. Sandy Langdon

      The Honorable Ronald S. Lauder, Chairman, Central European Media Enterprises, Chairman, Clinique Laboratories

      Mrs. Jo Carole Lauder, Chair, Friends of Art and Preservation in Embassies

      Mr. Charles Leavell, Rolling Stone Keyboardist, Trustee, American Forest Foundation

      Mrs. Rose Leavell

      The Honorable Joseph I. Lieberman, United States Senator (D/Connecticut)

      Mrs. Hadassah Lieberman

      Mr. Yo-Yo Ma, Cellist

      Ms. Jill C. Hornor

      Ms. Amanda MacManus, Assistant Private Secretary to The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall

      His Excellency Sir David Manning, KCMG, Ambassador of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the United States

      Lady Catherine M. Manning, Spouse of the British Ambassador to the United States

      Mr. John Marion, Honorary Chairman, Sotheby’s North America

      Mrs. Anne Marion, Investor and Art Collector, Fort Worth, Texas

      The Honorable Anita McBride, Deputy Assistant to the President and Chief of Staff to the First Lady, Office of Mrs. Bush

      The Honorable Timothy J. McBride, Senior Vice President of Government Relations, Freddie Mac

      Dr. Azar Nafisi, Professor, Johns Hopkins University

      General Peter Pace, USMC, Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff

      Mrs. Lynne Pace

      Mr. Mike Rake, Esq., Chairman, Business in the Community, Chairman KPMG International, UK

      Mrs. Nancy Reagan

      Mr. Merv Griffin (Guest)

      The Honorable Condoleezza Rice, Secretary of State

      Mr. Gene A. Washington, Director of Football Operations, National Football League (Guest)

      Chief Justice John G. Roberts, Jr., The Chief Justice of the United States

      Mrs. Jane Sullivan Roberts

      The Honorable Donald H. Rumsfeld, Secretary of Defense

      Mrs. Joyce Rumsfeld

      Professor Witold Rybczynski, Professor, University of Pennsylvania

      Ms. Shirley Hallam

      Mrs. Linda Scott, Spouse of Mr. H. Lee Scott, President, Walmart

      Mr. James L. Scott (Brother-in-law of Mr. H. Lee Scott)

      Mr. Red Steagall, Poet Laureate of the State of Texas 2006

      Mrs. Gail Steagall

      Mr. Robert A.M. Stern, Dean, Yale University School of Architecture, Founder and Senior Partner, Robert A.M. Stern Architects

      Ms. Kathryn Stott, Concert Pianist

      Mr. Lynn C. Swann, Commentator, ABC Sports Collegiate Football

      Dr. Charena Swann

      Mr. H. Patrick Swygert, President, Howard University

      Ms. Patricia Worthy (Guest)

      The Honorable Robert Tuttle, American Ambassador to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

      Mrs. Maria Tuttle, Spouse of the American Ambassador to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

      Mr. R. Emmett Tyrrell, Jr., Editor in Chief, The American Spectator

      Mrs. Jeanne Hauch Tyrrell

      Mr. Tom Watson, Professional Golfer

      Mrs. Hilary Watson

      The Honorable Anthony A. Williams, Mayor of the District of Columbia

      Mrs. Diane Williams

      Mr. Herman Wouk, Author

      Mrs. Sarah Wouk

      After-Dinner Entertainment:

      The President and Mrs. Bush

      His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales

      Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Cornwall

      The Honorable (Mrs.) Judith Ansley, Special Assistant to the President and Senior Director for European Affairs, NSC

      Mr. Stephen Ansley, Spouse of the Special Assistant to the President and Senior Director for European Affairs

      Mr. Kenneth Blasingame, Interior Designer, Blasingame Designs

      Ms. Sally Canfield, Assistant to the Speaker for Policy, Office of the Speaker, U.S. Capitol

      Ms. Anne Canfield (Sister)

      The Honorable (Mr.) Alan Charlton, Minister (Deputy Chief of Mission), British Embassy

      Mrs. Judith Charlton, Washington, DC

      The Honorable (Mr.) Daniel Fried, Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs

      Miss Sophia Fried (Daughter)

      Ms. Mary A. Haines, Deputy Executive Secretary for Scheduling and Advance, National Security Council

      Ms. Katherine Spiller, Special Assistant for Scheduling and Advance, National Security Council (Guest)

      Mr. Robert Higdon, The Prince’s Foundation

      Mr. David Deckelbaum (Guest)

      Mr. Paul Johnston, First Secretary, Press, British Embassy

      Mrs. Felicity Johnston

      Mr. Michael Kahn, Artistic Director, The Shakespeare Theatre

      Mr. Andrew Reynolds (Guest)

      Ms. Lisa Moore, General Counsel, Office of the Minority Leader, U.S. Senate

      Mr. Jonathon Lehman

      Mr. Michael O’Neill, Committee Staff Director, Judiciary Committee, U.S. Senate

      Mrs. Margaret O’Neill

      Dr. Gail Kern Paster, Folger Shakespeare Library

      Mr. Morrison D. Webb (Guest)

      Ms. Susannah Payne, Private Secretary to the British Ambassador

      Mr. Matthew Goshko (Guest)

      Ms. Margaret Peterlin, Counsel/Assistant to the Speaker for Policy, Office of the Speaker

      Mr. Michael Allen, NSC (Guest)

      Mr. Richard Rodgers, Senior Visits Officer, British Embassy

      Mrs. Anne Rodgers

      Mr. Kenneth Roy, UK Desk Officer, Department of State

      Mrs. Yordanka Roy, Alexandria, VA

      The Honorable (Mr.) Dave Schiappa, Secretary for the Majority Leader, U.S. Senate

      Mrs. Cheryl Schiappa

      Ms. Eva Shinagel, Director for European and Eurasian Affairs, NSC

      Ms. Vessela Borissova Tcherneva (Guest)

      Mr. Kyle Simmons, Chief of Staff, Office of the Majority Whip of the U.S. Senate

      Mrs. Carrie Simmons

      Mr. Jonathan Sinclair, First Secretary, Political Section, British Embassy

      Mrs. Helen Sinclair

      Mr. Steve Stombres, Chief of Staff, Office of the Chief Deputy Whip of the U.S. House of Representatives

      Mrs. Kristen Stombres

      Mr. Eric Ueland, Chief of Staff, Office of the Majority Leader of the U.S. Senate

      Mrs. Cathleen Ueland

      Mr. Kurt Volker, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State

      Mr. Karen Volker

      The Honorable (Ms.) Candida Wolff, Assistant to the President for Legislative Affairs, Office of Legislative Affairs

      Mr. Mark Wolff

      http://www.kshs.org/kansapedia/harry-ford-sinclair/12204

  17. Renee says:

    See father of Dodi al-Fayad:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Fraser

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fraser_Valley

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joe_Frazier
    Frazier’s style was often compared to that of Henry Armstrong and occasionally Rocky Marciano, dependent on bobbing, weaving and relentless pressure to wear down his opponents. His best known punch was a powerful left hook, which accounted for most of his knockouts. In his career he lost to only two fighters, both former Olympic and world heavyweight champions: twice to Muhammad Ali, and twice to George Foreman.

    After retiring, Frazier made cameo appearances in several Hollywood movies, and two episodes of The Simpsons. His son Marvis became a boxer — trained by Frazier himself — although was unable to recreate his father’s success. Frazier continued to train fighters in his gym in Philadelphia. His later years saw the continuation of his bitter rivalry with Ali, in which the two periodically exchanged insults, interspersed with brief reconciliations.

    Frazier was diagnosed with liver cancer in late September 2011 and admitted to hospice care.[3] He died November 7, 2011

    He was born here:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beaufort,_South_Carolina
    Beaufort (pron.: /ˈbjuːfərt/ (BEW-fərt, a different pronunciation than used by its counterpart in North Carolina[3]) is a city in and the county seat of Beaufort County, South Carolina, USA.[4] Chartered in 1711, it is the second-oldest city in South Carolina, behind Charleston. The city’s population was 12,361 in the 2010 census. It is located in the Hilton Head Island-Beaufort Micropolitan Area.

    Beaufort is located on Port Royal Island, in the heart of the Sea Islands and Lowcountry. The city is renowned for its scenic location and for maintaining a historic character by preservation of its antebellum architecture. The city is also known for its military establishments, being located in close proximity to Parris Island and a U.S. Naval Hospital, in addition to being home of the Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort.

    The city has been featured in the New York Times, and named “Best Small Southern Town” by Southern Living, a “Top 25 Small City Arts Destination” by American Style, and a “Top 50 Adventure Town” by National Geographic Adventure.

  18. Renee says:

    http://www.nlha.com.au/legends/1stIceChampions-fraser.html

    LADY SALTOUN, HEAD OF THE SENIOR BRANCH of the Fraser family, noted recently “…Although the Lovats never cleared their people from the Glens to make way for sheep, there was small prospect of advancement in life for younger sons unless they went south to one of the cities or emigrated, which is what many of them did. They went to Edinburgh, Glasgow or London, many went to America, Canada, Australia or New Zealand and prospered and founded families there, especially in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.” [295] The Clan Fraser Society of Canada, a part of the wider Clan Fraser, was first established in the Province of Québec on February 8th, 1868. In addition to electing a Chief for the Dominion of Canada, the meeting recommended election of one hundred and eleven subordinate chieftains of provinces, electoral divisions, counties, localities and townships to represent all the Frasers. John Fraser de Berry estimated they numbered about 12,000. In the Spring of 1894, Alexander Fraser (1860–1936) set out to revive the clan with a less pretentious and more practicable structure. Invitations were sent to members in Ontario, Montreal, New York, Buffalo and Detroit, to attend the first annual dinner of Clan Fraser in Canada on May 5th, 1894, and three hundred replies were received, expressing hope for its successful revival.

    Victorian senator Sir Simon Fraser KB (1832–1919) was in Ottawa at the time of this reunion. [293] One of the earliest and best-known patriarchs of this Scottish-Canadian family line in Australia, he had immigrated from Canada in 1853, where he eventually became a leader of the wealthy wool-growing class known as the squatters. During the 1860s and 1870s, the Frasers and other leading pastoralists in Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland and the Northern Territory, were closely involved with pioneering developments in refrigeration as it related to shipping their meat (see Next Wave). Fraser first toured Europe and America in 1883, after helping to arrange the Service-Berry coalition. He later became a minister in the cabinet of James Munro and a Victorian delegate to the Imperial Conference in Ottawa, held seven weeks after the first Clan Fraser dinner, between June 28th and July 9th, 1894. [294] Robert Reid, an uncle of Henry Newman Reid, was also in Ottawa as a trade ambassador in May 1894, but he had earlier arrived in London late in 1893, traveled to New York in April, then onto Vancouver, Montréal, Ottawa and Toronto. [293]

    The now famous Stanley Cup had arrived at Rideau Hall (Government House) in Ottawa in May 1893, a few months before Reid departed Australia, but Lord Stanley was already making plans to leave Canada for England. He was forced to conclude his term as Governor General of Canada several months prematurely because he had become the Earl of Derby, immediately succeeding his brother, Edward, who had died unexpectedly on April 21st, 1893. He never witnessed a Stanley Cup championship game, nor the presentation of his Cup. It was first awarded by a trustee, Sheriff John Sweetland, to the president of the Montréal Amateur Athletic Association (MAAA) during the MAAA annual meeting on May 15th, 1893. However, disputes between the Montréal Hockey Club (MHC) and the MAAA kept the Cup in the MAAA hands until it was finally accepted by the MHC on February 23rd, 1894. Two months later, Reid and Fraser met with Lord Stanley’s successor, Lord Aberdeen; Edinburgh-born John Hamilton-Gordon (1837–1934). Lord and Lady Aberdeen were enthusiastic supporters of outdoor sport in Canada, and personally participated in curling, hockey and sleighing at Rideau Hall. In his five years as Governor General, he transformed the role from an aristocrat representing the King or Queen in Canada, to a symbol representing the interests of all citizens, largely by meeting Canadians in all regions of Canada and discussing their concerns. He had also sought to strengthen communication and trade links with the overseas Dominions, seeing the future benefits of openness between countries.

    Reid and Fraser were in Ottawa as a direct result of joint efforts by the Australian and Canadian governments to extend trade. The initial step had been taken on May 18th, 1893, when the first ship of a new steamship service between Vancouver, BC, and Sydney, NSW, sailed from Sydney, operated by James Huddart. Huddardt started his shipping line in the 1860s from a coal and shipping business at Geelong in Victoria and, like Robert Reid, he had established his head offices in London in 1873, and fitted his ships with refrigerated capacity for New Zealand meat in 1881. Reid commenced the Canadian leg of his mission in Vancouver that year and returned to Australia from Vancouver on Huddart’s new line. In September, the Canadian government sent Mackenzie Bowell, the Canadian Minister of Trade and Commerce, “to Australia as soon as possible to confer with the several colonial (State) governments there, with a view to promote the extension of trade between Australia and Canada, and also to confer with those governments on the subject of a telegraph connecting Canada with Australia.” [294] This, in turn had led to the Ottawa Conference attended by both Reid and Fraser. Reid had promoted the importance of refrigerated shipping on his tour, and Fraser went on to London where he also “paid a large amount of attention to the frozen meat and butter trade”, returning to Australia late in 1894.

    A decade later, the first ice rinks were established in Australia by Reid’s nephew and, by the close of the following decade, the Fraser and Goodall families were related through the marriage of Simon Fraser Jr and Phyllis Clegg, the daughter of John Goodall’s aunt, Mary Ann Ellen Goodall. Huddardt’s Canadian-Australasian Line was taken over in 1910 by the New Zealand Shipping Co, together with Shaw, Savill and White Star Line. Bendrodt and Kendall arrived in Australia on the White Star liner Runic around the same time. Until his early death in 1919, Simon spent a good deal of time with John Goodall, and so too did Phyllis, including skating at Melbourne Glaciarium. During these years, the Frasers holidayed at their home in Oban, the largest port in the west of Scotland, about eighty miles from Beauly in Inverness, from where Sir Simon Fraser’s parents and grandfather had immigrated to Nova Scotia in the early-1800s. Beauly in Inverness is the ancestral seat of the Frasers of Lovat, a major branch of Clan Fraser. It was as far back as 1757, that fifteen hundred clansmen had been raised under Royal Warrant by the Hon Simon Fraser, Master of Lovat, to comprise a Highland regiment. Like Fraser himself, many had fought against the English in the failed Scottish rebellion just over a decade earlier, but they went on to fight for the Crown in the distant lands of North America. The sieges and battles of Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island, the Plains of Abraham, Ste Foy, Montreal, and St John’s saw the honour and bravery of the “Fighting Frasers”. Jim Kendall’s friends, the McLennans, dreamed of one day securing the Fortress of Louisbourg as a national site, and their work later formed a major part in its restoration, aided by unemployed coal miners from the industrial Cape Breton area where Kendall grew up. The 78th Fraser Highlanders distinguished their regiment in the Seven Years War, a war which shaped the nation of Canada as it is today, but that was only a beginning. Disbanded in 1763, many of the soldiers married into French-Canadian families and settled along the shores of the St Lawrence where many of their descendants still live today.

    For centuries, the Frasers have played pivotal roles in the history of trade in both Canada and Australia. The Western District of Victoria, where fine colonial homesteads stand amid prosperous pastures, is about the closest that Australia knows to the traditions of the English ‘landed gentry’. Successive generations of Australian pastoral wealth and conservatism descend from Sir Simon Fraser, including parliamentarians and a memorable prime minister. He had family and other ties to both Scotland and Canada for the seventy-two years he lived in Australia; a period which spanned the earliest development and inauguration of both refrigeration and Australian ice sports.

    Notes:
    [1] Alexander Fraser (1860–1936), organiser of the revival of Clan Fraser Society, was the son of Hugh and Mary (Mackenzie) Fraser. He was a native of Inverness-shire who emigrated to Canada in 1886, on the recommendation of Sir Charles Tupper, to take up a position on the editorial staff of the Toronto Mail (later the Toronto Mail and Empire). He also served as editor of the Scottish Canadian, Massey’s Illustrated, Presbyterian Review, and Fraser’s Scottish Annual. He helped to organize the Gaelic Society of Canada, the 48th Highlanders of Toronto, the Clan Fraser in Canada, and the Toronto Historical Society. A prolific author, Colonel Fraser was also the first Archivist of Ontario (1903–35).

    [2] The Frasers of Lovat, a major branch of Clan Fraser, descend from Sir Simon Fraser [younger brother of Sir Alexander Fraser, the Chamberlain], who married Lady Margaret, sister of the Earl of Caithness. Documents, dated 12th September 1367, connect a Fraser with the lands of Lovat and the Aird. Among the lands acquired by the Lovat Frasers, the prominent ones were in Stratherrick, which was very dear to the hearts of the Lovat chiefs, the church lands of Beauly Priory in Inverness-shire, part of the south shore of Beauly Firth, and the whole of Strathfarrar. Beauly was founded in about 1230 by John Bisset, who also built Lovat Castle. About 1460 Hugh Fraser, laird of Lovat, became the 1st Lord Lovat. [ The Charters of the Priory of Beauly, with notices of the Priories of Pluscardine and Ardchatten and of the Family of the Founder John Byset, edited by Edmund Chisholm Batten, 1877]. Several generations later, Hugh Fraser, 9th Lord Lovat, who had four daughters but no son, willed his estates to his grand-uncle, Thomas Fraser of Beaufort [fourth and only surviving son of Hugh, 7th Lord Lovat] instead of his eldest daughter Amelia. Thomas Fraser’s second son Simon, later 11th Lord Lovat, had planned to marry the Lovat heiress Amelia, but the plan failed and, in retaliation, Simon forcibly married her mother, the dowager Lady Lovat [the marriage was later annulled]. The 11th Lord Lovat was beheaded on Tower Hill in London in 1747, following which the Lovat title was attained and the estates were forfeited to the Crown. In 1774, some of the forfeited lands were granted to his eldest son, Simon Fraser of Lovat, by then a major general, in recognition of his military service to the Crown, but the title remained attainted. The original line ended on the death in 1815 of the general’s younger half-brother Archibald, without legitimate surviving issue. The estates passed to the nearest collateral heir-male, Thomas Alexander Fraser, 10th laird of Strichen, Aberdeenshire, who in 1837 was created Baron Lovat in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, and the Scottish title having been released, in 1857 he became 14th Lord Lovat, but for the attainder. With the death of the 17th Lord Lovat in 1995, aged 83, his eldest son and heir having died the previous year, his grandson, Simon Fraser, born in 1977, became the 18th Lord Lovat and 25th MacShimidh in descent from Sir Simon Fraser (k. 1333, Halidon Hill, Berwick) and the chief of the Highland clan Fraser of Lovat, based in Inverness-shire. Castle Dounie was home of the chiefs of Lovat from 1511 until it was burned following Culloden. The current Beaufort Castle, built in the 1880s, was sold in 1995. The Lovat family seat is Beauly in Inverness-shire.

  19. Renee says:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Fraser
    Alexander Fraser may refer to:

    Alexander Fraser of Touchfraser and Cowie, died by 1332 AD
    Alexander Fraser (Upper Canada politician) (1786–1853), soldier and political figure in Upper Canada and Canada West
    Alexander Fraser (d. 1799) (1729–1799), soldier and seigneur in Lower Canada
    Alexander Fraser (Ontario politician) (1824–1883), member of the 1st Parliament of Ontario
    Alexander Fraser, 11th Lord Saltoun (1604–1693)
    Alexander Fraser, 13th Lord Saltoun (1684–1748)
    Alexander Fraser, 14th Lord Saltoun (1710–1751)
    Alexander Fraser, 16th Lord Saltoun (1758–1793)
    Alexander Fraser, 17th Lord Saltoun (1785–1853)
    Alexander Fraser, 18th Lord Saltoun (1820–1886)
    Alexander William Frederick Fraser, 19th Lord Saltoun (1851–1933)
    Alexander Arthur Fraser, 20th Lord Saltoun (1886–1979)
    Alexander George Fraser, (1786-1865), Scottish painter
    Alexander Fraser (painter), (1827–1899), Scottish landscape painter and son of Alexander George Fraser
    Sandy Fraser, networking engineer at Bell Labs
    Alexander Fraser (Australian politician) (1892–1965), Victorian State MP
    Alexander Campbell Fraser (1819–1914), Scottish philosopher
    Alexander Cumming Fraser (1845–1944), politician in Manitoba, Canada
    Alexander G. Fraser, American computer scientist.

  20. Renee says:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandy_Fraser
    Alexander G. Fraser, also known as A. G. Fraser and Sandy Fraser, is a noted British-American computer scientist.

    Fraser received his B.Sc. degree in Aeronautical Engineering from Bristol University in 1958, and his Ph.D. in Computing Science from Cambridge University in 1969. Between degrees he worked at Ferranti, where he was responsible for compiler development, and designed and implemented an operating system.

    From 1966-1969 he was Assistant Director of Research at Cambridge, where in 1967 he designed and implemented the Titan computer’s file system, and worked on file archival, privacy, and persistent names. He moved to AT&T Bell Laboratories in 1969 where he invented cell-based networks that anticipated Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) and co-developed a reduced instruction set computer prototype with techniques for instruction set optimization. He subsequently became director of its Computing Science Research Center (1982), Executive Director (1987), and Associate Vice President for Information Science Research (1994). As Vice President for Research, he founded AT&T Laboratories in 1996, and in 1998 was named AT&T Chief Scientist. After his retirement in 2002 he established Fraser Research.

    Fraser is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, and a Fellow of the British Computer Society and IEEE. He has received the 1989 Koji Kobayashi Computers and Communications Award “for contributions to computer communications and the invention of virtual-circuit switching”, the 1992 SIGCOMM Award for “pioneering concepts, such as virtual circuit switching, space-division packet switching, and window flow control”, and the 2001 IEEE Richard W. Hamming Medal “for pioneering contributions to the architecture of communication networks through the development of virtual circuit switching technology.

    • Renee says:

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bell_Laboratories
      Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) is the research and development subsidiary of the French-owned Alcatel-Lucent in Berkeley Heights, New Jersey, United States. It previously was a division of the American Telephone & Telegraph Company (AT&T Corporation), half-owned through its Western Electric manufacturing subsidiary.

      Bell Laboratories operates its headquarters at Murray Hill, New Jersey, and has research and development facilities throughout the world. Researchers working at Bell Labs are credited with the development of radio astronomy, the transistor, the laser, the charge-coupled device (CCD), information theory, the UNIX operating system, the C programming language and the C++ programming language. Seven Nobel Prizes have been awarded for work completed at Bell Laboratories.

      The Alexander Graham Bell Laboratory, also variously known as the Volta Bureau, the Bell Carriage House, the Bell Laboratory and the Volta Laboratory, was created in Washington, D.C. by Alexander Graham Bell.

      In 1880, the French government awarded Bell the Volta Prize of 50,000 francs (approximately US$10,000 at that time, about $250,000 in current dollars[1]) for the invention of the telephone, which he used to found the Volta Laboratory, along with Sumner Tainter and Bell’s cousin Chichester Bell.[2] His research laboratory focused on the analysis, recording and transmission of sound. Bell used his considerable profits from the laboratory for further research and education to permit the “[increased] diffusion of knowledge relating to the deaf”.[2]

      The Volta Laboratory and the Volta Bureau were earlier located at Bell’s father’s house at 1527 35th Street in Washington, D.C., where its carriage house became their headquarters in 1889.[2] In 1893, Bell constructed a new building (close by at 1537 35th St.) specifically to house it.[2] The building was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1972.[3][4][5]

      [edit] Early antecedentIn 1884 the American Bell Telephone Company created its Mechanical Department from the Electrical and Patent Department formed a year earlier.

      [edit] Formal organizationIn 1925 Western Electric Research Laboratories and part of the engineering department of the American Telephone & Telegraph company (AT&T) were consolidated to form Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., as a separate entity. The first president of research was Frank B. Jewett, who stayed there until 1940. The ownership of Bell Laboratories was evenly split between AT&T and the Western Electric Company. Its principal work was to design and support the equipment that Western Electric built for Bell System operating companies, including telephone exchange switches. Support work for the phone companies included the writing and maintaining of the Bell System Practices (BSP), a comprehensive series of technical manuals. Bell Labs also carried out consulting work for the Bell Telephone Companies, and U.S. government work, including Project Nike and the Apollo program. A few workers were assigned to basic research, and this attracted much attention, especially since they produced several Nobel Prize winners. Until the 1940s, the company’s principal locations were in and around the Bell Labs Building in New York City, but many of these were moved to New York suburban areas of New Jersey.

      Among the later Bell Laboratories locations in New Jersey were Murray Hill, Holmdel, Crawford Hill, the Deal Test Site, Freehold, Lincroft, Long Branch, Middletown, Neptune, Princeton, Piscataway, Red Bank, and Whippany. Of these, Murray Hill and Crawford Hill remain in existence (the Piscataway and Red Bank locations were transferred to and are now operated by Telcordia Technologies and the Whippany site was purchased by Bayer[6]). The largest grouping of people in the company was in Illinois, at Naperville-Lisle, in the Chicago area, which had the largest concentration of employees (about 11,000) prior to 2001. There also were groups of employees in Columbus, Ohio; North Andover, Massachusetts; Allentown, Pennsylvania; Reading, Pennsylvania; and Breinigsville, Pennsylvania; Burlington, North Carolina (1950s–1970s, moved to Greensboro 1980s) and Westminster, Colorado. Since 2001, many of the former locations have been scaled down, or shut down entirely.

      [edit] Discoveries and developments
      Bell Laboratories logo, used from 1969 until 1983At its peak, Bell Laboratories was the premier facility of its type, developing a wide range of revolutionary technologies, including radio astronomy, the transistor, the laser, information theory, the UNIX operating system, the C programming language and the C++ programming language. Seven Nobel Prizes have been awarded for work completed at Bell Laboratories.[7]

      1937: Clinton J. Davisson shared the Nobel Prize in Physics for demonstrating the wave nature of matter.
      1956: John Bardeen, Walter H. Brattain, and William Shockley received the Nobel Prize in Physics for inventing the first transistors.
      1977: Philip W. Anderson shared the Nobel Prize in Physics for developing an improved understanding of the electronic structure of glass and magnetic materials.
      1978: Arno A. Penzias and Robert W. Wilson shared the Nobel Prize in Physics. Penzias and Wilson were cited for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation, a nearly uniform glow that fills the Universe in the microwave band of the radio spectrum.
      1997: Steven Chu shared the Nobel Prize in Physics for developing methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light.
      1998: Horst Stormer, Robert Laughlin, and Daniel Tsui, were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for the discovery and explanation of the fractional quantum Hall effect.
      2009: Willard S. Boyle, George E. Smith shared the Nobel Prize in Physics together with Charles K. Kao. Boyle and Smith were cited for the invention of charge-coupled device (CCD) semiconductor imaging sensors.
      The Turing Award has twice been won by Bell Labs researchers:

      1968: Richard Hamming for his work on numerical methods, automatic coding systems, and error-detecting and error-correcting codes.
      1983: Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie for their work on operating systems theory, and their development of Unix.
      [edit] 1920sDuring its first year of operation, facsimile (fax) transmission, invented elsewhere, was first demonstrated publicly by the Bell Laboratories. In 1926, the laboratories invented an early example synchronous-sound motion picture system, in competition with Fox Movietone and DeForest Phonofilm.[8]

      In 1924, Bell Labs physicist Dr. Walter A. Shewhart proposed the control chart as a method to determine when a process was in a state of statistical control. Shewart’s methods were the basis for statistical process control (SPC) — the use of statistically based tools and techniques for the management and improvement of processes. This was the origin of the modern quality movement, including Six Sigma.

      In 1927, a Bell team headed by Herbert E. Ives successfully transmitted long-distance 128-line television images of Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover from Washington to New York. In 1928 the thermal noise in a resistor was first measured by John B. Johnson, and Harry Nyquist provided the theoretical analysis. (This is now referred to as “Johnson noise”.) During the 1920s, the one-time pad cipher was invented by Gilbert Vernam and Joseph Mauborgne at the laboratories. Bell Labs’ Claude Shannon later proved that it is unbreakable.

      [edit] 1930s
      Reconstruction of the directional antenna used in the discovery of radio emission of extraterrestrial origin by Karl Guthe Jansky at Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1932.In 1931, a foundation for radio astronomy was laid by Karl Jansky during his work investigating the origins of static on long-distance shortwave communications. He discovered that radio waves were being emitted from the center of the galaxy. In 1931 and 1932, experimental high fidelity, long playing, and even stereophonic recordings were made by the labs of the Philadelphia Orchestra, conducted by Leopold Stokowski.[9] In 1933, stereo signals were transmitted live from Philadelphia to Washington, D.C. In 1937, the vocoder, the first electronic speech synthesizer was invented and demonstrated by Homer Dudley. Bell researcher Clinton Davisson shared the Nobel Prize in Physics with George Paget Thomson for the discovery of electron diffraction, which helped lay the foundation for solid-state electronics.

      [edit] 1940s
      The first transistor, a point-contact germanium device, was invented at Bell Laboratories in 1947. This image shows a replica.In the early 1940s, the photovoltaic cell was developed by Russell Ohl. In 1943, Bell developed SIGSALY, the first digital scrambled speech transmission system, used by the Allies in World War II.

      Bell Labs Quality Assurance Department gave the world and the United States such statisticians as Walter A. Shewhart, W. Edwards Deming, Harold F. Dodge, George Edwards, Harry Romig, R. L. Jones, Paul Olmstead, E.G.D. Paterson, and Mary N. Torrey. During World War II, Emergency Technical Committee – Quality Control, drawn mainly from Bell Labs’ statisticians, was instrumental in advancing Army and Navy ammunition acceptance and material sampling procedures.

      In 1947, the transistor, probably the most important invention developed by Bell Laboratories, was invented by John Bardeen, Walter Houser Brattain, and William Bradford Shockley (and who subsequently shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956). In 1947, Richard Hamming invented Hamming codes for error detection and correction. For patent reasons, the result was not published until 1950. In 1948, “A Mathematical Theory of Communication”, one of the founding works in information theory, was published by Claude Shannon in the Bell System Technical Journal. It built in part on earlier work in the field by Bell researchers Harry Nyquist and Ralph Hartley, but it greatly extended these. Bell Labs also introduced a series of increasingly complex calculators through the decade. Shannon was also the founder of modern cryptography with his 1949 paper Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems.

      [edit] CalculatorsModel I: A Complex Number Calculator, completed January 1940, for doing calculations of complex numbers. See George Stibitz.
      Model II: Relay Calculator or Relay Interpolator, September 1943, for aiming anti-aircraft guns
      Model III: Ballistic Computer, June 1944, for calculations of ballistic trajectories
      Model IV: Bell Laboratories Relay Calculator, March 1945, a second Ballistic Computer
      Model V: Bell Laboratories General Purpose Relay Calculator, of which two were built, July 1946 and February 1947, which were general-purpose programmable computers using electromechanical relay
      Model VI: November 1950, an enhanced Model V
      [edit] 1950sIn 1952 William Gardner Pfann revealed the method of zone melting which enabled semiconductor purification and level doping.

      The 1950s also saw developmental activity based upon information theory. The central development was binary code systems. Efforts concentrated more precisely on the Laboratories’ prime mission of supporting the Bell System with engineering advances including N-carrier, TD Microwave radio relay, Direct Distance Dialing, E-repeaters, Wire spring relays, and improved switching systems. Maurice Karnaugh, in 1953, developed the Karnaugh map as a tool to facilitate management of Boolean algebraic expressions. In 1954, The first modern solar cell was invented at Bell Laboratories. As for the spectacular side of the business, in 1956 TAT-1, the first transatlantic telephone cable was laid between Scotland and Newfoundland, in a joint effort by AT&T, Bell Laboratories, and British and Canadian telephone companies. A year later, in 1957, MUSIC, one of the first computer programs to play electronic music, was created by Max Mathews. New greedy algorithms developed by Robert C. Prim and Joseph Kruskal, revolutionized computer network design. In 1958, the laser was first described, in a technical paper by Arthur Schawlow and Charles Hard Townes.

      [edit] 1960sIn December 1960, Ali Javan and his associates William Bennett and Donald Heriot successfully operated the first gas laser, the first continuous-light laser, operating at an unprecedented accuracy and color purity. Also in 1960, Dawon Kahng and Martin Atalla invented the metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET); the MOSFET has achieved electronic hegemony and sustains the large-scale integrated circuits (LSIs) underlying today’s information society. In 1962, the electret microphone was invented by Gerhard M. Sessler and James Edward Maceo West. In 1964, the Carbon dioxide laser was invented by Kumar Patel. In 1965, Penzias and Wilson discovered the Cosmic Microwave Background, for which they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1978. Frank W. Sinden, Edward E. Zajac, Kenneth C. Knowlton, and A. Michael Noll made computer-animated movies during the early to mid 1960s. The first digital computer art was created in 1962 by Noll. In 1966, Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), a key technology in wireless services, was developed and patented by R. W. Chang. In 1968, Molecular beam epitaxy was developed by J.R. Arthur and A.Y. Cho; molecular beam epitaxy allows semiconductor chips and laser matrices to be manufactured one atomic layer at a time. In 1969, the UNIX operating system was created by Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson. From 1969 to 1971, Aaron Marcus, the first graphic designer in the world to work with computer graphics, researched, designed, and programmed a prototype interactive page-layout system for the Picturephone (TM). The Charge-coupled device (CCD) was invented in 1969 by Willard Boyle and George E. Smith, for which they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2009. In the 1960s, the New York City site was sold and became the Westbeth Artists Community complex.

      [edit] 1970s
      The C programming language was developed at Bell Laboratories in 1972The 1970s and 1980s saw more and more computer-related inventions at the Bell Laboratories as part of the personal computing revolution. In 1972 Dennis Ritchie developed the compiled C programming language as a replacement for the interpretive B which was then used in rewriting the UNIX operating system (also developed at Bell Laboratories by Ritchie and Ken Thompson). Additionally, the AWK programming language was designed and implemented by Alfred Aho, Peter Weinberger, and Brian Kernighan of Bell Laboratories.

      In 1970, A. Michael Noll patented a tactile, force-feedback system, coupled with interactive stereoscopic computer display. In 1971, an improved task priority system for computerized switching systems for telephone traffic was invented by Erna Schneider Hoover, who received one of the first software patents for it. In 1976, Fiber optics systems were first tested in Georgia and in 1980, the first single-chip 32-bit microprocessor, the BELLMAC-32A was demonstrated. It went into production in 1982.

      The 1970s also saw a major central office technology evolve from crossbar electromechanical relay-based technology and discrete transistor logic to Bell Labs-developed thick film hybrid and transistor-transistor logic (TTL), stored program-controlled switching systems; 1A/#4 TOLL Electronic Switching Systems (ESS) and 2A Local Central Offices produced at the Bell Labs Naperville and Western Electric Lisle, Illinois facilities. This technology evolution dramatically reduced the floor space required. The new ESS also came with its own diagnostic software that required only a switchman and several frame technicians to maintain. The technology was often touted in the Bell Labs Technical Journals and Western Electric magazine (WE People).[citation needed]

      [edit] 1980s
      Bell Laboratories logo, used from 1984 until 1995In 1980, the TDMA and CDMA digital cellular telephone technology was patented. In 1982, Fractional quantum Hall effect was discovered by Horst Störmer and former Bell Laboratories researchers Robert B. Laughlin and Daniel C. Tsui; they consequently won a Nobel Prize in 1998 for the discovery. In 1986, the C++ programming language was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup as an extension to the original C programming language also developed at Bell Laboratories.

      In 1984, the first photoconductive antennas for picosecond electromagnetic radiation were demonstrated by Auston and others. This type of antenna became an important component in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. In 1984, the Karmarkar Linear Programming Algorithm was developed by mathematician Narendra Karmarkar. Also in 1984, a divestiture agreement signed in 1982 with the American Federal government forced the break-up of AT&T: Bellcore (now Telcordia Technologies) was split off from Bell Laboratories to provide the same R&D functions for the newly created local exchange carriers. AT&T also was limited to using the Bell trademark only in association with Bell Laboratories. Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. became a wholly owned company of the new AT&T Technologies unit, the former Western Electric. The 5ESS Switch was developed during this transition. In 1985, laser cooling was used to slow and manipulate atoms by Steven Chu and team. In 1985, the AMPL modeling language was developed by Robert Fourer, David M. Gay and Brian Kernighan at Bell Laboratories. Also in 1985, Bell Laboratories was awarded the National Medal of Technology “For contribution over decades to modern communication systems”. During the 1980s, the Plan 9 operating system was developed as a replacement for Unix which was also developed at Bell Laboratories in 1969. Development of the Radiodrum, a three dimensional electronic instrument. In 1988, TAT-8 became the first fiber optic transatlantic cable.

      [edit] 1990s
      Lucent Logo bearing the “Bell Labs Innovations” taglineIn 1990, WaveLAN, the first wireless local area network (WLAN) was developed at Bell Laboratories. In 1991, the 56K modem technology was patented by Nuri Dağdeviren and his team. In 1994, the quantum cascade laser was invented by Federico Capasso, Alfred Cho, Jerome Faist and their collaborators and was later greatly improved by the innovations of Claire Gmachl. Also in 1994, Peter Shor devised his quantum factorization algorithm. In 1996, SCALPEL electron lithography, which prints features atoms wide on microchips, was invented by Lloyd Harriott and his team. The Inferno operating system, an update of Plan 9, was created by Dennis Ritchie with others, using the new concurrent Limbo programming language. A high performance database engine (Dali) was developed which became DataBlitz in its product form.[10]

      AT&T spun off Bell Laboratories, along with most of its equipment-manufacturing business, into a new company named Lucent Technologies. AT&T retained a smaller number of researchers, who made up the staff of the newly created AT&T Labs. In 1997, the smallest practical transistor (60 nanometers, 182 atoms wide) was built. In 1998, the first optical router was invented[dubious – discuss].

      [edit] 2000s
      Logo of Alcatel-Lucent, holding the Bell Labs now2000 was an active year for the Laboratories, in which DNA machine prototypes were developed; progressive geometry compression algorithm made widespread 3-D communication practical; the first electrically powered organic laser invented; a large-scale map of cosmic dark matter was compiled, and the F-15 (material), an organic material that makes plastic transistors possible, was invented.

      In 2002, physicist Jan Hendrik Schön was fired after his work was found to contain fraudulent data. It was the first known case of fraud at Bell Labs.

      In 2003, the New Jersey Institute of Technology Biomedical Engineering Laboratory was created at Murray Hill, New Jersey.[11]

      In 2005, Dr. Jeong Kim, former President of Lucent’s Optical Network Group, returned from academia to become the President of Bell Laboratories.

      In April 2006, Bell Laboratories’ parent company, Lucent Technologies, signed a merger agreement with Alcatel. On December 1, 2006, the merged company, Alcatel-Lucent, began operations. This deal raised concerns in the United States, where Bell Laboratories works on defense contracts. A separate company, LGS Innovations, with an American board was set up to manage Bell Laboratories’ and Lucent’s sensitive U.S. Government contracts.

      In December 2007, it was announced that the former Lucent Bell Laboratories and the former Alcatel Research and Innovation would be merged into one organization under the name of Bell Laboratories. This is the first period of growth following many years during which Bell Laboratories progressively lost manpower due to layoffs and spin-offs making the company shut down for a short period of time.

      As of July 2008, however, only four scientists remained in physics basic research, according to a report by the scientific journal Nature.[12]

      On August 28, 2008, Alcatel-Lucent announced it was pulling out of basic science, material physics, and semiconductor research, and it will instead focus on more immediately marketable areas, including networking, high-speed electronics, wireless networks, nanotechnology and software.[13]

      [edit] See alsoAlcatel-Lucent—Parent company of Bell Laboratories
      Arun Netravali—Bell Laboratories engineer—former president of Bell Laboratories
      Bell Labs Holmdel Complex
      Bell Labs Technical Journal—Published scientific journal of Bell Laboratories (1996–present)
      Bell System Technical Journal—Published scientific journal of Bell Laboratories (1922–1983)
      George Stibitz—Bell Laboratories engineer—”father of the modern digital computer”
      History of mobile phones—Bell Laboratories conception and development of cellular phones
      High speed photography & Wollensak—Fastax high speed (rotating prism) cameras developed by Bell Labs
      Sound film—Westrex sound system for cinema films developed by Bell Labs
      TWX Magazine—A short-lived trade periodical published by Bell Laboratories (1944-1952)
      Walter A. Shewhart—Bell Laboratories engineer—”father of statistical quality control”
      “Worse is Better”—A software design philosophy also called “The New Jersey Style” under which UNIX and C were supposedly developed.

  21. Renee says:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fraser_Valley
    The Fraser Valley is the section of the Fraser River basin in southwestern British Columbia downstream of the Fraser Canyon. The term is sometimes used to refer to the Fraser Canyon and stretches upstream from there, but in general British Columbian usage of the term refers to the stretch of the river downstream from the town of Hope (about where the “r” in “Vancouver” is on the map below).

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