Colors Of The Rainbow: White

©Renee 2012

For the cheer of the season, we will add white to our rainbow. The color of Christmas, fresh snow and all things pure. The color of clouds, cotton sheets and lace. It is also an interesting name as well. Let’s explore the connections more here.

History is one of our basic forms of knowledge, it is here for our understanding of the world in which we live. History and it’s stories are interesting. Grab a cozy cotton quilt and snuggle up by the fire with a Christmas treat and hot cocoa. Enjoy the basic pleasures in life this Christmas. Happy holidays to all of you.

We will start with this story and then go on.

This entry was posted in Colors of the Rainbow, Faraway Places and Travel, Planes, Trains and Automobiles, Sandcastles, Powderpuffs and Stars, Uncategorized. Bookmark the permalink.

14 Responses to Colors Of The Rainbow: White

  1. Renee says:
    White, Weld & Co. is a privately held global financial services firm engaged in asset management,investment advisory, investment banking and other capital market activities. Relaunched in 2012, the business is headquartered in Chicago. Previously, White, Weld & Co. was a Boston-based investment bank, historically managed by Boston Brahmins until its sale to Merrill Lynch in 1978. The Weld family name can be traced back to the founding of Massachusetts in the 1630s.

    [edit] HistoryWhite, Weld & Co. was founded in Boston in the nineteenth century, originally to finance overseas trade. It developed into a small, well-connected New York investment bank by the twentieth century and a bastion of the WASP establishment. For example, George Herbert Walker, Jr., uncle of the first President Bush, became an executive of White, Weld when his firm G. H. Walker & Co. was bought by them in the early 1970s. Charles J. Fuhrmann II, Paul Hallingby, Steve Hammerman, Harold Janeway, Charles C. Lee, Nigel S. MacEwan and George G. Montgomery, Jr. were Senior Vice Presidents and Roberts W. Brokaw was Vice President when the company was sold to Merrill Lynch. As stock markets became more retail-oriented and investment banking became more capital intensive, the firm decided it could not compete and put itself up for sale. One of the firm’s most prominent transactions in its final period was the IPO of Walmart in 1970 with Stephens Inc. The firm’s employees were known for frequently wearing white bucks as their footwear. Note that they frequently allowed these shoes to become exceedingly dirty and these became a symbol of the firm’s status within the WASP establishment.

    [edit] Relationship with Credit SuisseOne of its most successful ventures was an international investment banking partnership founded in 1970 by Robert L. Genillard as a Managing Partner of White, Weld & Co, with Credit Suisse, called ‘’Société Anonyme du Credit Suisse et de White Weld’’ – or Credit Suisse White Weld. Sir John Craven, later head of Morgan Grenfell, led Credit Suisse White Weld from 1975 to 1978. Furthermore, Oswald Gruebel, Credit Suisse chief from 2004 to 2007, began his career in 1970 at Credit Suisse White Weld. When White Weld was purchased by Merrill Lynch, it left the partnership with Credit Suisse and was replaced by First Boston thus creating the Credit Suisse First Boston business in London. The Swiss private banking division of White Weld, founded in 1954 as White Weld & Co. AG, lives on as Clariden Bank.

    [edit] References[]White, Weld & Co.
    [1] Clariden, “About Us”
    Privately held company
    Industry Diversified Financial Services
    Founded 1895; sold to Merrill Lynch in 1978. Relaunched in 2012.
    Headquarters Chicago
    Area served Worldwide
    Services Investment management, Investment banking, Capital markets
    Dow Jones Industrial Average Component
    S&P 500 Component
    Industry Retailing
    Founded 1962 (1962)
    Founder(s) Sam Walton
    Headquarters Bentonville, Arkansas, U.S.
    36°21′51″N 094°12′59″W / 36.36417°N 94.21639°W / 36.36417; -94.21639
    Number of locations 8,970 (2011)
    Area served Worldwide
    Key people S. Robson Walton (Chairman)
    Mike Duke (President & CEO)
    Products Apparel/footwear specialty, cash & carry/warehouse club, discount department store, discount store, hypermarket/supercenter/superstore, supermarket
    Revenue US$ 446.950 billion (2012)[1]
    Operating income US$ 026.558 billion (2012)[1]
    Net income US$ 015.699 billion (2012)[1]
    Total assets US$ 193.406 billion (2012)[1]
    Total equity US$ 071.315 billion (2012)[1]
    Owner(s) Walton family
    Employees 2.2 million (2012)[1]
    Divisions Walmart Canada
    Subsidiaries Asda, Sam’s Club, Seiyu Group, Walmex
    Website Wal-Mart

    Sam Walton’s original Walton’s Five and Dime store in Bentonville, Arkansas, now serving as the Walmart Visitor CenterSam Walton, a businessman from Arkansas, began his retail career when he started work on June 3, 1940, at a J. C. Penney store in Des Moines, Iowa where he remained for 18 months. In 1945, he met Butler Brothers, a regional retailer that owned a chain of variety stores called Ben Franklin and that offered him one in Newport, Arkansas.[12]

    Walton was extremely successful in running the store in Newport, far exceeding expectations.[13] However, when the lease came up for renewal, Walton could neither come to agreement on the existing store’s lease renewal nor find a new location in Newport. Instead, he opened a new Ben Franklin franchise in Bentonville, Arkansas, but called it “Walton’s Five and Dime.” There, he achieved higher sales volume by marking up slightly less than most competitors.[14]

    On July 2, 1962, Walton opened the first Walmart Discount City store located at 719 Walnut Ave. in Rogers, Arkansas. The building is now occupied by a hardware store and an antique mall. Within five years, the company expanded to 24 stores across Arkansas and reached $12.6 million in sales.[15] In 1968, it opened its first stores outside Arkansas, in Sikeston, Missouri and Claremore, Oklahoma
    Stephens Inc. is a full-service, privately owned investment bank based in Little Rock, Arkansas.

    Contents [hide]
    1 History
    2 Quick facts
    3 Businesses
    4 External links

    [edit] HistoryStephens Inc. was founded in 1933 by W.R. Witt Stephens. His brother, Jackson T. Stephens joined the firm in 1946 and served as Chairman of the Board and CEO of Stephens Inc. from 1956 to 1986. Since 1986 Warren Stephens, Jack’s son, has served as CEO of Stephens Inc. In 1970, Stephens Inc. (along with Wall Street firm White Weld & Co.) brought Wal-Mart public in an IPO.

    [edit] Quick factsEmploys over 700 people.
    Has 24 offices worldwide.
    Since the beginning of 1999, has led or co-managed 50 public offerings, raising over $13.2 billion, and delivered 38 fairness opinions.
    Over the last 5 years, has advised clients on over 120 merger and acquisition transactions with aggregate transaction value in excess of $43 billion dollars.
    The CEO is Warren Stephens.
    Financier of Dickey-Stephens Park, which plays home to the Arkansas Travelers baseball team.

  2. Renee says:
    Spouse(s) 1. Ann Cherrington, predeceased him
    2. Catherine Ann Chandler

  3. Renee says:
    Subsidiary of Cunard Line
    Successor(s) Cunard White Star Line
    Founded As the Oceanic Steam Navigation Company in Liverpool, United Kingdom, 1870-1934
    Headquarters London, United Kingdom
    Area served Transatlantic
    Key people Peter Shanks (President of Cunard)
    Thomas Henry Ismay
    William Imrie
    J. Bruce Ismay
    Parent Carnival Corporation & PLC

    The Oceanic Steam Navigation Company or White Star Line of Boston Packets, more commonly known as just White Star Line, was a highly prominent British shipping company, today most famous for its ill-fated vessel, the RMS Titanic, and the World War I loss of Titanic’s sister ship Britannic. In 1934 the line merged with its chief rival, Cunard Line, which operated as a separate entity until 2005 and is now part of Carnival Corporation & PLC. As a lasting reminder of the White Star Line, modern Cunard ships use the term White Star Service to describe the impeccable level of customer care expected of the company.

  4. Renee says:
    Born Joseph Bruce Ismay
    (1862-12-12)12 December 1862
    Crosby, Lancashire, England
    Died 17 October 1937(1937-10-17) (aged 74)
    Mayfair, London, England
    Cause of death Stroke
    Nationality British
    Occupation Ship-owner
    Spouse(s) Julia Florence Schieffelin

    Joseph Bruce Ismay (12 December 1862 – 17 October 1937[1]) was an English businessman who served as chairman and managing director of the White Star Line of steamships. He came to international attention as the highest-ranking White Star official among the 705 survivors (vs. 1,517 fatalities from crew and passengers totaling 2,223) of the maiden voyage of his company’s marquee ocean liner, the RMS Titanic.[2]

    Ismay was born in Crosby, Lancashire, a small town near Liverpool. He was the son of Thomas Henry Ismay (7 January 1837 – 23 November 1899) and Margaret Bruce (13 April 1837 – 9 April 1907), daughter of ship-owner Luke Bruce.[3] Thomas Ismay was the senior partner in Ismay, Imrie and Company and the founder of the White Star Line.[a][4] The younger Ismay was educated at Elstree School and Harrow,[5] then tutored in France for a year. He was apprenticed at his father’s office for four years, after which he toured the world. He then went to New York City as the company representative, eventually rising to the rank of agent.[6]

    On 4 December 1888, Ismay married Julia Florence Schieffelin (1871 – 31 December 1963), daughter of George Richard Schieffelin and Julia Matilda Delaplaine of New York, with whom he had five children:[7]

    Margaret Bruce Ismay (29 December 1889 – 1967), who married George Ronald Hamilton Cheape (1881–1957) in 1912
    Henry Bruce Ismay (April 1891 – 1 October 1891)
    Thomas Bruce Ismay (18 February 1894 – ), who married Jane Margaret Seymour
    Evelyn Constance Ismay (17 July 1897 – 9 August 1940), who married Basil Sanderson (1894–1971) in 1927
    George Bruce Ismay (6 June 1902 – 30 April 1943), who married Florence Victoria Edrington in 1926. [8]
    In 1891, Ismay returned with his family to the United Kingdom and became a partner in his father’s firm, Ismay, Imrie and Company. In 1899, Thomas Ismay died, and Bruce Ismay became head of the family business. Ismay had a head for business, and the White Star Line flourished under his leadership. In addition to running his ship business, Ismay also served as a director of several other companies. In 1901, he was approached by Americans who wished to build an international shipping conglomerate, and agreed to merge his firm into the International Mercantile Marine Company.

    After the death of his father on 23 November 1899,[9][10] Bruce Ismay succeeded him as the chairman of White Star Line. He decided to build four ocean liners to surpass the RMS Oceanic built by his father: the ships were dubbed the Big Four: RMS Celtic, RMS Cedric, RMS Baltic, and RMS Adriatic. These vessels were designed more for luxury, and for speed than safety.[11]

    In 1902, Ismay negotiated the sale of the White Star Line to J.P. Morgan & Co., which was organising the formation of International Mercantile Marine Company, an Atlantic shipping combine which absorbed several major American and British lines. IMM was a holding company that controlled subsidiary operating corporations. Morgan hoped to dominate transatlantic shipping through interlocking directorates and contractual arrangements with the railroads, but that proved impossible because of the unscheduled nature of sea transport, American antitrust legislation, and an agreement with the British government.[12] White Star Lines became one of the IMM operating companies and, in February 1904, Ismay became president of the IMM, with the support of Morgan.[13]

    [edit] RMS Titanic
    Illustration of the sinking of the TitanicIn 1907, Ismay met Lord Pirrie of the Harland & Wolff shipyard to discuss White Star’s answer to the RMS Lusitania and the RMS Mauretania,[b] the recently unveiled marvels of their chief competitor, Cunard Line. Ismay’s new type of ship would not only be fast, it would also have huge steerage capacity and luxury unparalleled in the history of ocean-going steamships. The latter feature was largely meant to attract the wealthy and the prosperous middle class. To accommodate the luxurious features Ismay ordered the number of lifeboats reduced from 48 to 16, the latter being the minimum allowed by the Board of Trade, based on the Titanic’s projected tonnage.[14][15] Three ships of the Olympic Class were planned and built; the second was the RMS Titanic, which began its maiden voyage from Southampton to New York City, on 10 April 1912. The first and third ships of this class were the RMS Olympic and HMHS Britannic.

    Ismay occasionally accompanied his ships on their maiden voyages, and the Titanic was one of them.[4] During the voyage, Ismay talked with chief engineer Joseph Bell about a possible test of speed if time permitted.[16] When the ship hit an iceberg 400 miles south of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and started sinking on the night of 14 April 1912, Ismay was rescued in Collapsible Lifeboat C.[17] He testified that as the ship was in her final moments, he turned away, unable to watch his creation sink beneath the waters of the North Atlantic. He was taken aboard the Cunard liner RMS Carpathia and arrived in New York on 18 April. Ismay later testified at the Titanic disaster inquiry hearings held by both the U.S. Senate (chaired by Senator William Alden Smith) the following day, and the British Board of Trade (chaired by Lord Mersey) a few weeks later.

    After being picked up by the Carpathia, Ismay was led to the cabin belonging to the ship’s doctor, which he reportedly did not leave for the entire journey. He ate nothing solid, received only a single visitor, and was kept under the influence of opiates.[18][19] When he arrived in New York, Ismay was hosted by Philip Franklin, vice president of the company. He also received a summons to appear before a Senate committee headed by Republican Senator William Alden Smith.

    After the disaster, Ismay was savaged by both the American and the British press for deserting the ship while women and children were still on board. Some papers called him the “Coward of the Titanic” or “J. Brute Ismay” and suggested that the White Star flag be changed to a yellow liver. Some ran negative cartoons depicting him deserting the ship. The writer Ben Hecht, then a young newspaperman in Chicago, wrote a scathing poem contrasting the actions of Capt. Smith and Ismay. The final verse reads: “To hold your place in the ghastly face of death on the sea at night is a seaman’s job, but to flee with the mob, is an owner’s noble right.”[20]

    Some maintain Ismay followed the “women and children first” principle, having assisted many women and children himself. He and first-class passenger William Carter said they boarded Collapsible C after there were no more women and children near that particular lifeboat. Carter’s own behaviour and reliability, however, were criticised by Mrs. Carter, who sued him for divorce in 1914; she testified Carter had left her and their children to fend for themselves after the crash and accused him of “cruel and barbarous treatment and indignities to the person.”[21] London society ostracised Ismay and labelled him one of the biggest cowards in history. Strong negative press came particularly from newspapers owned by William Randolph Hearst, whom some claimed fostered a personal vendetta.[22] On 30 June 1913, Ismay resigned as president of International Mercantile Marine and chairman of the White Star Line, to be succeeded by Harold Sanderson.

    Ismay announced during the United States Inquiry that all the vessels of the International Mercantile Marine Company would be equipped with lifeboats in sufficient numbers for all passengers.[23] Following the inquiry, Ismay and the surviving officers of the ship returned to England aboard RMS Adriatic. Ismay’s reputation was irreparably damaged and he maintained a low public profile after the disaster. He did maintain an interest in maritime affairs. He inaugurated a cadet ship called Mersey used to train officers for Britain’s Merchant Navy, donated £11,000 to start a fund for lost seamen, and in 1919 gave £25,000 (£851,649 as of 2012)[24] or $125,000 ($1,675,624 as of 2012),[25] to set up a fund to recognise the contribution of merchant mariners in World War I.[26]

    [edit] Later lifeIsmay kept out of the public eye for most of the remainder of his life. He retired from active affairs in the mid-1920s, and settled with his wife in a large ‘cottage’, Costelloe Lodge, near Costelloe in Connemara, County Galway, Ireland. His health declined in the 1930s, following a diagnosis of diabetes, which took a turn for the worse in early 1936, when the illness resulted in amputation of part of his right leg. He returned to England a few months later, settling in a small house on the Wirral across the River Mersey from Liverpool. J. Bruce Ismay died in Mayfair, London, on 17 October 1937, of a cerebral thrombosis (stroke), at the age of 74. His funeral was held on 21 October 1937, and he is buried in Putney Vale Cemetery, London.[27] He was survived by his wife, Florence Schieffelin. After his death, she renounced her British subject status in order to restore her American citizenship on 14 November 1949. Julia Florence Ismay, née Schieffelin, died 31 December 1963, aged 92, in Kensington, London.

    [edit] ControversyDuring the congressional investigations, some passengers testified that during the voyage they heard Ismay pressuring Captain Edward J. Smith to go faster, in order to arrive in New York ahead of schedule and generate some free press about the new liner. The 2000 book The White Star Line: An Illustrated History by Paul Louden-Brown states that this was unlikely, and that Ismay’s record does not support the notion that he had any motive to do so.[22] In addition, many captains have attested that the procedure is to run the ship at full speed.[28]

    Louise Patten, granddaughter of Charles Lightoller, who was the second officer on board the Titanic, claims in her book that Ismay pressured Captain Smith to maintain speed after hitting the iceberg and that this decision caused the ship to sink faster, and that rescuers could not arrive in time to save hundreds that might otherwise have survived.

  5. Renee says:
    The International Mercantile Marine Co., originally the International Navigation Co., was a trust formed in the early twentieth century as an attempt by J.P. Morgan to monopolize the shipping trade. The result was heavy losses for Morgan.

    IMM was founded by shipping magnates Clement Griscom of the American Line and Red Star Line, Bernard N. Baker of the Atlantic Transport Line, J. Bruce Ismay of the White Star Line, and John Ellerman of the Leyland Line. The Dominion Line was also amalgamated. The project was bankrolled by J.P. Morgan & Co., led by financier J. P. Morgan. The company also had working profit-sharing relationships with the German Hamburg-Amerika and the North German Lloyd lines. The trust caused great concern in the British shipping industry and led directly to the British government’s subsidy of the Cunard Line’s new ships RMS Lusitania and RMS Mauretania in an effort to compete. However, IMM dramatically overpaid to acquire some of the amalgamated companies, due to overestimation of potential profits.

    IMM was a holding company that controlled subsidiary corporations that had their own subsidiaries. Morgan hoped to dominate transatlantic shipping through interlocking directorates and contractual arrangements with the railroads, but that proved impossible because of the nature of sea transport, American antitrust legislation, and an agreement with the British government. One of IMM’s subsidiaries was the White Star Line, which owned the RMS Titanic. Analysis of financial records shows that IMM was overleveraged and suffered from inadequate cash flow that caused it to default on bond interest payments in late 1914. As a result, a “friendly” receivership was put in effect in 1915, which allowed IMM to reorganize its finances; it emerged from the receivership in 1916.[1] Saved by World War I, IMM eventually reemerged as the United States Lines, which itself went bankrupt in 1986.[2]

    A proposed subsidy bill in the United States Congress failed[when?] and the company thus was never really successful. Beginning in the 1920s, the company underwent a series of corporate acquisitions and mergers, which resulted in its becoming the United States Lines in 1943.

    While the shipping industry gained popularity in the late nineteenth century, the idea of trusted monopolizing of the shipping companies in the United States attracted many people. However, all negotiations in this regard in the 1890s fell short. The intervention of John Pierpont Morgan, one of the richest men in the world, would change all of that.[3]

    The Atlantic Transport Line was an American shipping company owned by Bernard N. Baker, having both passenger and cargo ships.[4] ATL was in intense competition with British and other shipping companies, and Baker tried to sell his company to John Ellerman, chairman of the Leyland Line, a well-known fleet of cargo carriers. Ellerman had tried unsuccessfully to take possession of the Cunard Line and HAPAG, two powerful European companies. Negotiations between Baker and Ellerman, although well advanced, were finally ended.[5]

    Baker reportedly met J. P. Morgan during an Atlantic crossing. Morgan, at that time already concluded agreements with Clement Griscom, President of the International Navigation Company, which operated the Red Star Line and the American Line. Finally, in December 1900, after six months of negotiations, the Atlantic Transport Line joined lNC.[6]

    Subsequently, Baker, J. P. Morgan, and Simon Bettle Jr. (representative of the INC) negotiated with Ellerman, this time with a view to redeem his property. There would be two companies that would join the trust. The name of one of them is revealed: the Leyland Line.[7] The second is to be the prestigious White Star Line, which was bought by Morgan in April 1902.[8][9][10] On 1 October 1902, JP Morgan & Co. announced the founding of the International Mercantile Marine Company, more commonly called IMM. However, the IMM was already unofficially under the name of INC for several years.[5]

    [edit] Golden age
    The Regina sailed for the Dominion Line and White Star Line before being transferred to the Red Star Line under the name of Westernland.The role of Morgan had greatly evolved over the years. Being American, he could not own British ships, however, he took advantage of loopholes and the fact he owned the company that owned the ship itself to ensure his power to own the ships.[5] In 1902, the IMM was carrying a total of 64,738 passengers, with his companies taking advantage of the high immigration to the United States. In addition, the IMM had signed a partnership with the two most important German shipping companies, Norddeutscher Lloyd and HAPAG, carrying a total of 66,838 passengers.

    The United Kingdom should therefore address these rivalries increasingly bitter. Cunard Line, one of the British shipping companies with independent significance, received grants from the British government for the construction of two great ocean liners, the Lusitania and the Mauretania.[11] For the competitive requests from the IMM in 1908 for Harland & Wolff to build the White Star Line’s Olympic class ocean liner: RMS Olympic, RMS Titanic, and RMS Gigantic (later renamed HMHS Britannic).[12]

    Since 1902, IMM had an agreement with James Pirrie, chairman of Harland & Wolff and member of the management of the White Star Line, stating that the vessels of the company will be built by Harland & Wolff for all the time.[5] Ships of the company were also shifting from one company to another, like the Belgic, built for the White Star Line, which was transferred to the service of the Red Star Line under the name SS Belgenland (1914), or the Regina became the Westernland.[13] This allowed the IMM to leave each day a ship from the United Kingdom, and passengers to change their tickets to a position equivalent to another vessel of the company. Baker retired from the direction of the Atlantic Transport Line shortly after its integration with the IMM, and was replaced by Philip Franklin. He later became vice president of IMM, while Griscom was replaced as president by Joseph Bruce Ismay in 1904 (who was also president of the White Star Line).[14]

    [edit] Decline
    The sinking of the Titanic was one of the causes of the decline of IMM.The early 1910s marked a turning point for the IMM. Indeed, on April 15, 1912, the Titanic, flagship of its fleet, sank during her maiden voyage. Besides the financial and human losses, the sinking had repercussions on the organization of the trust. Through the American commission of inquiry devoted to the sinking, Senator William Alden Smith openly attacked the very principle of the company and Morgan.[15] As had been arranged before Titanic sank, J. Bruce Ismay retired as president of IMM in 1913 and was succeeded by Harold Sanderson[16] and Morgan died on March 31, 1913.[17] After the 1915-16 receivership, Sanderson was succeeded as president by Franklin, who had been the receiver.[18]

    However, the sinking of the Titanic did not bring about the end of the IMM. Although theoretically powerful due to its continued influence with some of the top American, British, and German shipping companies, the overseeing company never managed to overcome its own financial problems, nor dominate the bulk of the North Atlantic shipping trade, and was therefore not as successful as expected.[5] The company went into receivership in 1915 and was placed in the hands of Franklin, who managed to save it. In the late 1920s, he received grants from the government to American ships (built in the United States or flying the flag) and in 1926 it sold the White Star Line to the Royal Mail Steam Packet Co. for £7 million, of which £2.35 million was still unpaid when the Royal Mail Group, which was overleveraged and undercapitalized, collapsed in the early 1930s.[19] In 1930, IMM possessed 30 vessels. There were 19 in 1933 and only 11 by 1935.

    By 1935, company, now having shed off most of its foreign business connections, had merged with the Roosevelt Line after the liquidation of the Red Star Line and the Atlantic Transport Line. John Franklin, son of Philip, was in fact co-founder of the Roosevelt Line.[20] Finally, with World War II raging in the early 1940s, the company was fully dissolved and its remaining American ships were transferred to the United States Lines.[5] Some businesses of the modern shipping industry still regard IMM as an early attempt at the corporate ownership of several companies under a single trust; the kind of large overseeing companies that dominate much of the maritime shipping world today.

    [edit] PresidentsClement A. Griscom, 1902–1904
    J. Bruce Ismay, 1904–1913
    Harold A. Sanderson, 1913–1915
    Receivership, 1915–1916
    Philip Albright Small Franklin, 1916-1936 [21]
    John A. Franklin, 1936–1943
    Company merged into United States Lines, 1943[22]

    [edit] Companies owned by the IMM.
    Flag of the Red Star LineAmerican Line
    American Merchant Lines
    Atlantic Transport Line
    Baltimore Mail Line
    Dominion Line
    Leyland Line
    Panama Pacific Line
    Red Star Line
    Roosevelt Steamship Co.
    United States Lines
    White Star Line
    [edit] See alsoInternational Mercantile Marine Company Building
    [edit] References^ The New York Times, 4 April 1915; IMM 1916 Annual Report.
    ^ John J. Clark, and Margaret T. Clark, “The International Mercantile Marine Company: A Financial Analysis,” American Neptune 1997 57(2): 137–154
    ^ (Gérard Piouffre 2009, p. 58)
    ^ Atlantic Transport Line, The Ship List. Retrieved July 7, 2010
    ^ a b c d e f The IMM, Atlantic Transport Line History. Retrieved 17 July 2009
    ^ Red Star Line, The Ship List. Retrieved 17 February 2010
    ^ J.P. MORGAN & CO. BUY THE LEYLAND LINE, New York Times of 30 April 1901. Retrieved 17 July 2009
    ^ (French) Histoire de la White Star Line sur le Site du Titanic. Retrieved 17 July 2009
    ^ (French) FAQ sur le Site du Titanic. Retrieved 30 December 2009
    ^ (Mark Chirnside 2004, pp. 9–10)
    ^ (Beau Riffenburgh 2008, p. 12)
    ^ (Gérard Piouffre 2009, p. 33 à 36)
    ^ Regina/Westernland, Great Ships. Retrieved 7 February 2010
    ^ (Gérard Piouffre 2009, p. 10)
    ^ (Gérard Piouffre 2009, p. 260)
    ^ Wilton Oldham: “The Ismay Line”
    ^ (Beau Riffenburgh 2008, p. 7)
    ^ IMM 1916 Annual Report
    ^ Green and Moss: “A Business of National Importance”
    ^ Father & Son in I. M. M., Time Magazine. Retrieved February 7, 2010
    ^ “Father & Son in I. M. M.”. Time magazine. February 10, 1936.,9171,755832,00.html. Retrieved 2009-08-18. “From presidency to chairmanship of International Mercantile Marine Co. last week moved Philip Albright Small Franklin. From vice-presidency to presidency rose John Franklin, his son. P. A. S. Franklin was vice-president of International Mercantile Marine at the time of its organization in 1902, became president in 1916, at one point during the War directed the movements of all merchant ships flying the U. S. flag.”
    ^ The New York Times, 21 and 22 May 1943
    [edit] Further readingChirnside, Mark: The Olympic-class ships. Tempus, 2004 (ISBN 0-7524-2868-3)
    Gittelman, Steven H.: J.P. Morgan and the Transportation Kings — The Titanic and Other Disasters. University Press of America, Inc., 2012 (ISBN 978-0-7618-5850-8)
    (French) Piouffre, Gérard: Le Titanic ne répond plus. Larousse, 2009 (ISBN 2-263-02799-8)
    (French) Beau Riffenburgh, Toute l’histoire du Titanic, Sélection du Reader’s Digest, 2008 (ISBN 2709819821)
    Vale, Vivian (1984). The American Peril: Challenge to Britain on the North Atlantic 1901–04. Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-1718-1. OCLC 10752931.
    Navin, Thomas R. and Sears, Marian V. “A Study In Merger: Formation Of The International Mercantile Marine Company,” Business History Review 1954 28(4): 291-328
    [edit] External links«Die ‘Titanic stocks’, Rose und die zweite Maid» a scripophilistic article listing/showing all known IMM stocks and bonds, and incl. other related documents (in German)
    Retrieved from “”


  6. Renee says:
    Industry Civil Engineering
    Marine Engineering
    Offshore construction
    Founded 1861
    Nationalised 1977
    Privatised 1989
    Headquarters Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK
    Key people Edward Harland
    Gustav Wilhelm Wolff
    William Pirrie, 1st Viscount Pirrie
    Thomas Andrews
    Sir John Parker
    Fred Olsen
    Owner(s) Fred. Olsen Energy
    Employees 500

    Harland & Wolff Heavy Industries is a Northern Irish heavy industrial company, specializing in shipbuilding and offshore construction, located in Belfast, Northern Ireland.

    The shipyard has built many ships; among the more famous are the White Star trio Olympic, Titanic and Britannic, the Royal Navy’s HMS Belfast, Royal Mail’s Andes, Shaw Savill’s Southern Cross and P&O’s Canberra. The company’s official history, “Shipbuilders to the World” was published in 1986.[1]

    As of 2011, the expanding offshore wind power industry has taken centre stage and 75% of the company’s work is based on offshore renewable energy.

    Harland & Wolff was formed in 1861 by Edward James Harland (1831–1895) and Hamburg-born Gustav Wilhelm Wolff (1834–1913, in the UK from age 14). In 1858 Harland, then general manager, bought the small shipyard on Queen’s Island from his employer Robert Hickson.

    Workers leaving the shipyard at Queens Road in early 1911. The RMS Titanic can be seen in the background, underneath the Arrol gantry.After buying Hickson’s shipyard, Harland made his assistant Wolff a partner in the company. Wolff was the nephew of Gustav Schwabe, Hamburg, who was heavily invested in the Bibby Line, and the first three ships that the newly incorporated shipyard built were for that line. Harland made a success of the business through several innovations, notably replacing the wooden upper decks with iron ones which increased the strength of the ships; and giving the hulls a flatter bottom and squarer cross section, which increased their capacity.

    Statue of Edward James Harland in the grounds of Belfast City Hall
    The Harland & Wolff Belfast Drawing Offices during the early 20th centuryWhen Harland died in 1895, William James Pirrie became the chairman of the company until his death in 1924. Thomas Andrews also became the general manager and head of the draughting department in 1907. It was during this period that the company built the RMS Olympic and her sister-ships RMS Titanic and HMHS Britannic between 1909 and 1914, commissioning Sir William Arrol & Co. to construct a massive twin gantry and slipway structure for the project.

    In 1912, the company acquired another shipyard at Govan in Glasgow, Scotland. It bought the former London & Glasgow Engineering & Iron Shipbuilding Co’s Middleton and Govan New shipyards in Govan and Mackie & Thomson’s Govan Old yard, which had been owned by William Beardmore and Company. The three neighbouring yards were amalgamated and redeveloped to provide a total of seven building berths, a fitting-out basin and extensive workshops. Harland & Wolff specialised in building tankers and cargo ships at Govan. The nearby shipyard of A. & J. Inglis was also purchased by Harland & Wolff in 1919, along with a stake in the company’s primary steel supplier, David Colville & Sons. Harland & Wolff also established shipyards at Bootle in Liverpool, North Woolwich in London and Southampton. These shipyards were all eventually closed from the early 1960s however, when the company opted to consolidate its operations in Belfast.

    [edit] The war years
    A burner operating at night on the deck of a ship at Harland and Wolff’s Liverpool yard (27 October 1944).During World War I, Harland and Wolff built monitors and cruisers, including the 15-inch gun armed “large light cruiser” HMS Glorious. In 1918, the company opened a new shipyard on the eastern side of the Musgrave Channel which was named the East Yard. This yard specialised in mass-produced ships of standard design developed during the First World War.

    The company started an aircraft manufacturing subsidiary with Short Brothers, called Short & Harland Limited in 1936. Its first order was for 189 Handley Page Hereford bombers built under license from Handley Page for the Royal Air Force. During the Second World War, this factory built Short Stirling bombers as the Hereford was removed from service.

    The shipyard was busy during World War II, building 6 aircraft carriers, 2 cruisers (including HMS Belfast) and 131 other naval ships; and repairing over 22,000 vessels. It also manufactured tanks and artillery components. It was during this period that the company’s workforce peaked at around 35,000 people. However, many of the vessels built during this era were commissioned right at the end of World War II, as Harland and Wolff were focused on ship repair during the first three years of the war. The yard on Queen’s Island was heavily bombed by the Luftwaffe in April and May 1941 causing considerable damage to the shipbuilding facilities and destroying the aircraft factory.

    [edit] Post-war periodWith the rise of the jet-powered airliner in the late 1950s, the demand for ocean liners declined. This, coupled with competition from Japan, led to difficulties for the British shipbuilding industry. The last liner that the company launched was the MV Arlanza for Royal Mail Line in 1960, whilst the last liner completed was the SS Canberra for P&O in 1961.

    In the 1960s, notable achievements for the yard included the tanker Myrina which was the first supertanker built in the UK, and the largest vessel ever launched down a slipway (September 1967). In the same period the yard also built the semisubmersible drilling rig Sea Quest which, due to its three-legged design, was launched down three parallel slipways. This was a first and only time this was ever done.

    In the mid-1960s, the British government started advancing loans and subsidies to British shipyards to preserve jobs. Some of this money was used to finance the modernisation of the yard, allowing it to build the much larger post-war merchant ships including one of 333,000 tonnes. However continuing problems led to the company’s nationalisation, though not as part of British Shipbuilders, in 1977.

    The company was bought from the British government in 1989 in a management/employee buy-out in partnership with the Norwegian shipping magnate Fred Olsen; leading to a new company called Harland & Wolff Holdings Plc. By this time, the number of people employed by the company had fallen to around 3,000.

    For the next few years, Harland & Wolff specialised in building standard Suezmax oil tankers, and has continued to concentrate on vessels for the offshore oil and gas industry. It has made some forays outside of this market. The company bid unsuccessfully tendered against Chantiers de l’Atlantique for the construction of Cunard line’s new Queen Mary 2.[3]

    In the late 1990s, the yard was part of the then British Aerospace’s team for the Royal Navy’s Future Carrier (CVF) programme. It was envisaged that the ship would be assembled at the Harland & Wolff dry-dock in Belfast. In 1999 BAe merged with Marconi Electronic Systems. The new company, BAE Systems Marine, included the former Marconi shipyards on the Clyde and at Barrow-in-Furness thus rendering H&W’s involvement surplus to requirements.

    [edit] Restructuring and current operations
    The Samson and Goliath gantry cranes have become city landmarks.
    Harland & Wolff is now a leading offshore fabrication and ship repair yard.
    MS Isle of Inishmore and HSC Jonathan Swift undergoing refit at Harland & Wolff in 2008.Faced with competitive pressures (especially as regards shipbuilding), Harland & Wolff sought to shift and broaden their portfolio, focusing less on shipbuilding and more on design and structural engineering, as well as ship repair, offshore construction projects and competing for other projects to do with metal engineering and construction. This led to Harland and Wolff constructing a series of bridges in Britain and also in the Republic of Ireland, such as the James Joyce Bridge and the restoration of Dublin’s Ha’penny Bridge, building on the success of its first foray into the civil engineering sector with the construction of the Foyle Bridge in the 1980s.

    Harland & Wolff’s last shipbuilding project (to date) was the MV Anvil Point, one of six near identical Point class sealift ships built for use by the Ministry of Defence. The ship, built under licence from German shipbuilders Flensburger Schiffbau-Gesellschaft, was launched in 2003.

    In recent years the company has indeed seen its ship-related workload increase slightly. Whilst Harland & Wolff has no involvement in any shipbuilding projects for the foreseeable future, the company is increasingly involved in overhaul, re-fitting and ship repair, as well as the construction and repair of off-shore equipment such as oil platforms. On 1 February 2011 it was announced that Harland & Wolff had won the contract to refurbish the SS Nomadic, effectively rekindling its nearly 150-year association with the White Star Line. Structural steel work on the ship began on February 10, 2011 and has been completed in time for the 2012 Belfast Titanic Festival. In July 2012 Harland & Wolff will carry out the dry docking and service of the Husky Oil SeaRose FPSO (Floating Production, Storage and Offloading) vessel.

    Belfast’s skyline is still dominated today by Harland & Wolff’s famous twin Gantry cranes, Samson and Goliath, built in 1974 and 1969 respectively. There is also speculation about a resurgence in the prosperity of the shipyard thanks to the company’s diversification into emerging technologies, particularly in renewable energy development, such as offshore wind turbine and tidal power construction, which may provide an opportunity to further improve the company’s fortunes in the long term. For example, the United Kingdom planned to build 7,500 new offshore wind turbines between 2008 and 2020,[4] creating great demand for heavy assembly work. Unlike land-based wind turbines, where assembly occurs on site, offshore wind turbines have part of their assembly done in a shipyard, and then construction barges transport the tower sections, rotors, and nacelles to the site for final erection and assembly. As a result of this, in late 2007, the ‘Goliath’ gantry crane was re-commissioned, having been moth-balled in 2003 due to the lack of heavy-lifting work at the yard.

    In June 2008, assembly work at the Belfast yard was underway on 60 Vestas V90-3MW wind turbines for the Robin Rigg Wind Farm.[5] This was the second offshore wind farm assembled by the company for Vestas having completed the logistics for the Barrow Offshore Wind Farm in 2006. In August 2011 Harland and Wolff completed the logistics for the Ormonde Wind Farm which consisted of 30 REpower 5MW turbines.

    In March 2008, the construction of the world’s first commercial tidal stream turbine, for Marine Current Turbines, was completed at the Belfast yard. The installation of the 1.2MW SeaGen Tidal System was begun in Strangford Lough in April 2008.[6]

    In July 2010, Harland & Wolff secured a contract to make a prototype tidal energy turbine for Scotrenewables Ltd.[7] Manufacture of the SR250 device was completed in May 2011 and has been undergoing testing in Orkney since.

    As of April 2012, the booming offshore wind power industry has taken centre stage. Harland & Wolff are currently working on three innovative meteorological mast foundations for the Dogger Bank and Firth of Forth offshore wind farms, as well as putting the finishing touches to two Siemens substations for the Gwynt y Môr offshore wind farm. Seventy-five per cent of the company’s work is based on offshore renewable energy. Harland & Wolff is one of many UK and international companies profiting from the emergence of UK wind- and marine-generated electricity, which is attracting significant inward investment.[2]

    [edit] ArchivesThe archives relating to the Harland & Wolff Heavy Industries are maintained by the Archives of the University of Glasgow (GUAS). A collection of Harland & Wolff papers are held at Public Record Office of Northern Ireland (PRONI).[8] Their “Introduction Harland and Wolff Papers” issued 2007, notes “The Harland & Wolff archive in PRONI comprises c.2,000 files, c.200 volumes and c.16,000 documents, 1861-1987, documenting most aspects of the history of Belfast’s famous shipbuilding firm”. A further major archive is held at the Ulster Folk and Transport Museum (UFTM). This has a photographic collection and a ships’ plans collection (i.e., technical drawings). While over 2,000 photographs in the UFTM Welch Collection may be accessed, the plans collection is not advertised on the UFTM website. According to PRONI (2007:10),[9] “The UFTM’s collection of ships’ plans are not available to the public in any shape or form at the moment. There is no copy service”. Selected early ship’s plans (dating from 1860 to 1882) are reproduced in a pictorial book by McCluskie (1998).[10]

    [edit] List of ships built
    SS Venetian – the first steamer built by Harland & Wolff 1860 – a plaque on the William James Pirrie monument, grounds of Belfast City Hall.Ships built by Harland and Wolff include:[11][12]

    This transport-related list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.
    SS Venetian, completed 1860 for Bibby Line
    RMS Atlantic, built 1870, maiden voyage 8 June 1871, sank 1 April 1873
    RMS Oceanic, launched on 27 August 1870, maiden voyage 2 March 1871. The White Star Line’s first liner. H+W also built 88 other ships for White Star
    SS Baltic, later Veendam, sank 6 February 1898
    SS Adriatic, launched on 17 October 1871, maiden voyage 11 April 1872
    SS Celtic, launched on 18 June 1872, maiden voyage 24 October 1872
    SS Britannic, maiden voyage 25 June 1874, scrapped 1903
    SS British Crown, launched 1879, maiden voyage 15 October 1879, renamed Amsterdam 1887
    SS British Queen, launched 1880, maiden voyage 31 January 1881, renamed Onega 1915, sunk by torpedo 1918
    SS Germanic, launched 1874, scrapped 1950
    SS Coptic, launched 10 August 1881, maiden voyage 16 November 1881
    SS Doric, launched 1883, 1906 renamed Asia
    SS Ionic, launched 1884, scrapped 1908
    SS Naronic, launched 1892, missing at sea March 1893
    SS Bovic, launched 1892, scrapped 1928
    SS Gaika, launched 1897, scrapped 1929
    SS Majestic, launched 1889, scrapped 1914
    SS Michigan, Launched April 19, 1890, Maiden Voyage on June 24, 1890; Renamed USAT Kilpatrick, Acropolis, Washington, Great Canton; Scrapped in Italy 1924.
    SS Mississippi, Launched August 29, 1890, Maiden Voyage on October 28, 1890; Renamed USAT Buford; Scrapped in Japan 1929.
    SS Massachusetts, Launched on December 17, 1891; Maiden Voyage on April 24, 1892; Renamed the Sheridan; Scrapped in October 1923.
    SS Manitoba, Launched on January 7, 1892; Maiden Voyage on April 15, 1892; Renamed the Logan, Candler; Scrapped in 1926.
    SS Mohawk, Launched in 1892; Maiden Voyage on April 1892; Renamed the Grant, Chinouk; Scrapped in 1946.
    SS Mobile, Launched on January 20, 1893; Renamed the Sherman, Calawaii; Scrapped in Japan in 1933.
    SS Gothic, maiden voyage 28 December 1893, scrapped 1926
    SS Minnewaska, Launched in 1894, previously named Persia, later renamed USAT Thomas; Scrapped in 1929.
    SS Armenian, launched 25 November 1895, sunk by torpedo 1915
    SS Canada, launched on 14 May 1896, maiden voyage 1 October 1896
    SS Cymric, launched 1898, sunk April 13, 1916
    SS New England, launched April 7, 1898, maiden voyage June 30, 1898, renamed Romanic November 1913, scrapped 1922
    RMS Oceanic, launched on 14 January 1899
    SS Commonwealth, launched on 31 May 1900, maiden voyage 4 October 1900. Became Canopic (1904)
    SS Minnehaha, launched on March 31, 1900; maiden voyage on July 7, 1900; torpedoed and sunk by U-Boat U 48 on September 7, 1917.
    RMS Celtic, launched on 4 April 1901, maiden voyage 26 July 1901. Wrecked 10 December 1928, Roche’s Point, Cobh, Ireland
    RMS Walmer Castle, launched on 6 July 1901
    SS Athenic, launched on 17 August 1901, maiden voyage 13 February 1902
    USS Artemis, launched 15 August 1902 as Iowa, later Bohemia and Empire Bittern, sunk 1944
    SS Cedric, launched on 21 August 1902, maiden voyage 11 February 1903
    WSL Corinthic launched 1902, scrapped 1932
    SS Ionic, launched on 22 May 1903, scrapped in Japan, 1936
    RMS Baltic, launched 21 November 1903, scrapped in Japan in 1933
    RMS Kenilworth Castle, launched on 15 December 1903, completed May 1904
    SS Mamari, maiden voyage 15 December 1904
    RMS Aragon, launched on 23 February 1905, maiden voyage 14 July 1905
    USS America, launched 20 April 1905 as SS Amerika, later USAT America and USAT Edmund B. Alexander, scrapped 1957
    TSS Nieuw Amsterdam, launched September 28, 1905; Maiden Voyage April 7, 1906; Scrapped in Japan February 1932.
    SS Rohilla, completed 1906; lost off Whitby 30 October 1914.
    USS Republic, launched in 1907
    SS Megantic, launched 1908, scrapped in Japan, 1933
    SS Laurentic, launched 1908, sunk by mines January 1917
    RMS Edinburgh Castle, launched on 27 January 1910, completed 28 April 1910, maiden voyage May 1910
    SS Pakeha, launched on 26 May 1910, completed 20 August 1910
    RMS Olympic, launched 20 October 1910, maiden voyage 14 June 1911
    SS Nomadic, launched 25 April 1911, tender to RMS Titanic and RMS Olympic, under restoration 2011
    SS Traffic, launched 27 April 1911, sunk 1941
    RMS Titanic, Olympic class launched on 31 May 1911, maiden voyage 10 April 1912, sunk 15 April 1912 2:20 am (ship’s time) 5:20 (GMT)
    SS Zealandic, launched on 29 June 1911, maiden voyage 30 October 1911, sunk 1941
    RMS Arlanza, launched 23 November 1911, completed September 1912
    SS Ceramic, launched on 11 December 1912, completed 5 July 1913
    SS Pittsburgh, launched 1913, entered service 1922, renamed Pennland, sunk 1942
    SS Katoomba, launched on 10 April 1913. Later Columbia. Sold to Japanese breakers 22 August 1959
    SS Alcantara, launched October 1913, sunk 29 February 1916
    HMHS Britannic, improved Olympic class, launched on 26 February 1914, sunk by mine 1916
    MS Akaroa, maiden voyage 1 July 1914, later Euripides, scrapped 1954
    SS Justicia, launched on 9 July 1914 as SS Statendam, completed April 1917
    RMT Almanzora, launched on 19 November 1914, completed September 1915
    SS Belgenland, originally SS Ceric, launched January 1914, completed 1917 as Belgic IV
    HMS Abercrombie, launched 15 April 1915, scrapped 1927
    RMS Regina, launched 1917, entered passenger service 1919, renamed Westerland, scrapped 1947
    SS Venusia, in service 1918, sister-ships; first freighters ordered from H+W by Cunard Line
    SS Varentia, in service 1918
    RMS Arundel Castle, launched 11 September 1919, scrapped 1959
    SS Doric, launched 1922, scrapped November 1935
    RMS Mooltan, launched on 15 February 1923
    RMS Maloja, launched on 19 April 1923
    SS Minnewaska, maiden voyage 1 September 1923
    RMMV Asturias, launched on 7 July 1925, completed 21 February 1926
    RMMV Carnarvon Castle, launched on 14 January 1926, maiden voyage 16 July 1926
    MS Alcantara, launched 1927, scrapped 1958
    SS Laurentic, launched 16 June 1927, torpedoed and sunk 3 November 1940
    SS Lochness, launched 6 June 1929; in service July 1929; scrapped 1973
    MV Llangibby Castle, launched 4 July 1929, maiden voyage 5 December 1929
    SS Duke of Lancaster, launched 1956
    MV St Christopher,launched 1981.
    MV St David IV,launched 1981(renamed Stena Caledonia in 1990.)
    RMS Britannic, launched 6 August 1929, scrapped 1960
    RMMV Winchester Castle, launched 19 November 1929, maiden voyage 24 October 1930
    MS Achimota, launched 17 December 1929, delivered 29 November 1932 as TSMV Wanganella
    RMMV Warwick Castle, launched 29 April 1930, maiden voyage 30 January 1931
    RMS Georgic, launched 1931, maiden voyage June 25, 1932, scrapped 1961
    MV Highland Patriot, completed 1932, war loss 1 October 1940
    TS Duchess of Hamilton, completed 1932, scrapped 1974
    MV Waipawa, completed October 1934
    MV Wairangi, completed February 1935
    MV Stirling Castle, launched 15 July 1935, maiden voyage 7 February 1936
    RMMV Athlone Castle, launched 28 November 1935, maiden voyage 22 May 1936
    MS Dunnottar Castle, launched 25 January 1936, maiden voyage 10 July 1936, later Victoria
    RMMV Dunvegan Castle, launched 26 March 1936
    MV Walmer Castle, launched 17 September 1936, completed 30 November 1936
    RMMV Cape Town Castle, launched 23 September 1937, completed 31 March 1938
    HMS Belfast, launched 17 March 1938, decommissioned 24 August 1963, museum ship since 31 October 1971
    RMMV Durban Castle, launched on 14 June 1938
    RMS Andes, launched on 7 March 1939, completed September 1939
    RMMV Pretoria Castle, launched on 12 October 1939 (later HMS Pretoria Castle then RMMV Warwick Castle)
    HMS Gentian, launched 6 August 1940, scrapped 1947
    RFA Black Ranger, launched 22 August 1940, scrapped 1979
    HMS Adamant, launched 30 November 1940, scrapped 1970
    RFA Brown Ranger, launched 12 December 1940, scrapped 1975
    HMS Anchusa, launched 15 January 1941, scrapped 1960
    HMS Bergamot, launched 15 February 1941, scrapped 1974
    MV Empire Grace, launched on 25 August 1941, completed April 1942
    MV British Bombardier, built as Empire Fusilier, completed as Empire Bombardier, scrapped 1959
    HMS Black Prince, (C81),later HMNZS Black Prince launched 27 August 1942, scrapped 1962 Osaka Japan
    MV Athelqueen, launched 24 November 1942 as Empire Benefit, later Mariverda, scrapped 1961
    HMS Boxer, launched 12 December 1942, scrapped 1958F
    MV Empire Abercorn, launched on 30 December 1944
    MV Durango, completed in 1944
    MV Waiwera, completed in 1944
    HMCS Bonaventure, launched 27 February 1945, scrapped 1971
    INS Vikrant, completion & modifications only 1957-61, decommissioned 31 January 1997, now museum in Mumbai
    SS Athenic, launched on 26 November 1946, maiden voyage 1 August 1947
    RMS Pretoria Castle, launched on 19 August 1947 (later SS S.A. Oranje)
    RMS Edinburgh Castle, launched on 16 October 1947
    RMS Parthia, maiden voyage 10 April 1948. First passenger/cargo liner ordered from H+W by Cunard Line
    RMS Magdalena, delivered 1949. Ran aground 25 April 1949 on maiden voyage near Rio de Janeiro and wrecked
    MV Bloemfontein Castle, launched on 24 August 1949, scrapped 1989
    SS Rhodesia Castle, launched on 5 April 1951, completed 6 October 1951
    SS Kenya Castle, launched on 21 June 1951, later SS Amerikanis, scrapped 2001
    SS Braemar Castle, launched on 5 April 1952
    MV Cedric, delivered November 1952
    MV Cretic, completed in 1953
    SS Iberia, launched on 21 January 1954, maiden voyage 28 September 1954
    SS Loch Gowan, completed in 1954
    SS Southern Cross, launched on 17 August 1954, delivered 23 February 1955, scrapped 2003
    Port Melbourne, completed in 1955
    SS Reina Del Mar, launched on 7 June 1955, delivered April 1956, maiden voyage 3 May 1956
    MV ” Ulster Star”, Launched 26 February 1956, Scrapped 1979
    SS Loch Loyal, completed in 1957
    HMS Blackpool, (F77) Whitby Class Frigate launched 14 February 1957, scrapped 1978, (Also became HMNZS Blackpool 1966-1971)
    RMS Pendennis Castle, launched on 24 December 1957, maiden voyage 1 January 1959, scrapped 1980
    RMMV Amazon, launched July 1959, maiden voyage January 1960
    RMMV Aragon, launched on 20 October 1959, maiden voyage 29 April 1960
    SS Canberra, launched on 16 March 1960, maiden voyage 6 June 1961, scrapped 1997
    RMMV Arlanza, launched on 13 April 1960, maiden voyage 7 Octobe 2233 Joyce Ave

  7. Renee says:,_1st_Viscount_Pirrie
    William James Pirrie, 1st Viscount Pirrie, KP, PC (Ire) (31 May 1847 – 7 June 1924) was a leading Irish shipbuilder and businessman. He was chairman of Harland and Wolff, shipbuilders, between 1895 and 1924, and also served as Lord Mayor of Belfast between 1896 and 1898. He was ennobled as Baron Pirrie in 1906, appointed a Knight of the Order of St Patrick in 1908 and made Viscount Pirrie in 1921.

    Contents [hide]
    1 Background
    2 Career
    3 Personal life
    4 References
    5 External links

    [edit] BackgroundPirrie was born in Quebec City, Canada East, the son of James Alexander Pirrie and Eliza Swan (Montgomery) Pirrie, who were both Irish.[1] He was taken back to Ireland when he was two years old and spent his childhood at Conlig, County Down.[citation needed] Belonging to a prominent family, his nephews included Prime Minister John Miller Andrews, Thomas Andrews, builder of the RMS Titanic, and Sir James Andrews, 1st Baronet, the Lord Chief Justice of Northern Ireland.[1] [2]

    [edit] CareerPirrie was educated at the Royal Belfast Academical Institution before entering Harland and Wolff shipyard as a gentleman apprentice in 1862. Twelve years later he was made a partner in the firm, and on the death of Sir Edward Harland in 1895 he became its chairman, a position he was to hold until his death. As well as overseeing the world’s largest shipyard, Pirrie was elected Lord Mayor of Belfast in 1896, and was re-elected to the office as well as made an Irish Privy Counsellor the following year. He became Belfast’s first honorary freeman in 1898, and served in the same year as High Sheriff of Antrim[3] and subsequently of County Down. He helped finance the Liberals in Ulster in the 1906 general election, and that same year, at the height of Harland and Wolff’s success, he was raised to the peerage as Baron Pirrie, of the City of Belfast.[4] The following year he was appointed Comptroller of the Household to the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, and in 1908 he was appointed Knight of St Patrick (KP).

    Lord Pirrie was jeered in the streets after chairing a famous meeting of the Ulster Liberal Association addressed by Winston Churchill. That same year he was to travel aboard the Titanic, but illness prevented him from joining the ill-fated passage. Pro-Chancellor of the Queen’s University, Belfast from 1908 to 1914, Lord Pirrie was also in the years before the First World War a member of the Committee on Irish Finance as well as Lieutenant for the City of Belfast (both 1911). During the war he was a member of the War Office Supply Board, and in 1918 became Comptroller-General of Merchant Shipbuilding, organising British production of merchant ships.

    In 1921 Pirrie was elected to the Northern Ireland Senate, and that same year was created Viscount Pirrie, of the City of Belfast, in the honours for the opening of the Parliament of Northern Ireland in July 1921, for his war work and charity work.[5][6]

    [edit] Personal lifeLord Pirrie married Margaret Montgomery Carlisle, daughter of John Carlisle, M.A., of Belfast, on April 17 1879. He died on June 7, 1924, at the age of 77 of bronchial pneumonia, at sea off Cuba, whilst on a business trip to South America.[1][7] His body was brought from New York on the White Star Line’s RMS Olympic [8] and was buried in Belfast City Cemetery.[9] The barony and viscountcy died with him. Lady Pirrie died on June 19, 1935.[1] In 1909, Lord Pirrie bought Witley Park, formerly the residence of Whitaker Wright.[10] In the 1900s, he built the Temple of the Four Winds near the Devil’s Punchbowl, Hindhead. The octagonal plinth still remains.[11] A memorial to Pirrie was unveiled in the grounds of Belfast City Hall in 2006.

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