The Geist

©Renee 2012
The guest moved very softly, like quiet, fluttering raven wings in the dark night. Who could guess what would happen next…

Geist (German pronunciation: [ˈɡaɪst]) is a German word. Depending on context it can be translated as the English words mind, spirit, or ghost, covering the semantic field of these three English nouns. Some English translators resort to using “spirit/mind” or “spirit (mind)” to help convey the meaning of the term.

Geist is a central concept in Hegel‘s The Phenomenology of Spirit (Phänomenologie des Geistes).


Edmund Spenser‘s usage of the English-language word ‘ghost’, in his 1590 The Faerie Queene, demonstrates the former, broader meaning of the English-language term. In this context, the term describes the sleeping mind of a living person, rather than a ghost, or spirit of the dead. The word Geist is etymologically identical to the English ghost (from a Common Germanic *gaistaz) but has retained its full range of meanings, while some applications of the English word ghost had become obsolete by the 17th century, replaced with the Latinate spirit. For this reason, English-language translators of the term Geist from the German language face some difficulty in rendering the term, and often disagree as to the best translation in a given context.

Related terms in other languages include the Greek word πνεύμα (pneuma), the Latin animus and anima, the French esprit, and the Chinese medical 神 shen

Sir Ernest Lucas Guest KBE, CMG, CVO, LLD (20 August 1882 – 20 September 1972) was a Rhodesian politician, lawyer and soldier. He held senior ministerial positions in the government, most notably as Minister for Air during the Second World War.

Guest was born in Grahamstown, Cape Colony. His grandfather had moved the family there, leaving Kidderminster, England, where it had been in the printing business for three generations. He saw active service in the Second Boer War, enlisting despite being underage, and again in the First World War, when he was injured in France. His legal career began while back in Southern Rhodesia between those two wars. He won a case against Sir Charles Coghlan, at the time Premier of Southern Rhodesia, and Coghlan invited him to become a partner in his firm, which became known as Coghlan, Welsh & Guest. On his return from the First World War, Guest took responsibility for the Salisbury practice.

He was elected to the Legislative Assembly in 1928 as a member of Coghlan’s Rhodesia Party, representing the constituency of Charter, which he held until 1946. He first became a cabinet minister in Godfrey Huggins‘ government, appointed Minister of Mines and Public Works in June 1938. During the Second World War, Guest was Minister for Air and administered the Rhodesia Air Training Group. After the war he was also Minister of Defence, Minister of Finance and Leader of the House. At the 1946 elections he stood for Salisbury Gardens and held the seat until his retirement from office in 1948.

He married Edith May Jones and had two daughters and twin sons, both of whom were killed in action during the Second World War. At his death, both the High Court and Parliament paid public tributes to him. His continuing legacy is most evident in the Kariba Dam, a project that went ahead with his active support.

Guest is a surname of Welsh origin,[citation needed] and may refer to:

British peers

Another spelling GUISE:,_Duke_of_Guise

The 2nd Baron Keyes (Sir Roger George Bowlby Keyes), of Zeebrugge, and  of Dover, co. Kent, and a Baronet, educated R.N.C. Dartmouth, Lieut. R.N. (retired),  served in World War II 1939-45, company director, Fell Institute of Directors, member Pattenmakers’ Co. and Freeman of City of London, born 14 March 1919; succeeded his father as 2nd Baron 1945; married 6 Dec 1947, Grizelda Mary, 2nd daughter of late Lt.Col. William Vere Packe, D.S.O., of Elmfield, Bromley Common, Kent (see Burke’s Landed Gentry) and has issue,

1.      Charles William Packe born 8 Dec 1951, educated Eton.

2.      Leopold Roger John (for whom H.M. King Leopold III of the Belgians was sponsor), born 8 June 1956.

3.      Adrian Christopher Noel, born 25 Dec 1962.

4.      Virginia Clementine, born 20 March 1950.

5.      Josephine Mary, born 9 Oct 1958.

Lineage. – This family is directly descended from the Norman house of Guiz or Gyse.

Much research into the early history of the Keyes family was undertaken by the late Sir Terence Keyes who died before the results of his investigations could be published.  They show (1) that the name occurs frequently in the Lancastrian records, the Exchequer Rolls, and the Rolls of Knights Banneret (ED. I) under the following spellings:  Keyes, Keyse, Keis, Kees, Kays, Kayes, Kiz, Kyz, Kys, Cays, Caius, Guiz, Guise, Guyz, Gyse, Gyz and Goyz; and (2) that a line of descent is traced from the Norman house of Guiz or Gyse, akin to the family of Guise, Baronet.

WILLIAM DE GUIZ, of Guiz (or Gouiz) in the Vicomte of St. Silvin, Normandy, had three sons, of whom the eldest,

ROBERT DE GUIZ, Chevalier, built a castle in Normandy for RICHARD 1.  He entered the service of KING JOHN  in 1203.  Of his four sons, the eldest,

SIR JOHN DE GYSE made homage to HENRY III in 1227.  He was possessed of lands in the cos. Of Oxford, Bedford, Buckingham and  Norfolk, etc. and was also granted land in the City of London (Bassishaw) for homage and the service of rendering a pair of gilt spurs annually.  His son,

SIR ANSELM DE GYSE,  who was Constable of the Tower of London until 1275, and acquired the Manor of Berdon, in Elsenham, Essex, married Beatrice (died 1293) and died 1286, leaving two sons, the elder of whom,

SIR RICHARD DE GYSE, Kt, Banneret, was summoned to the King’s council, 1287 but died without issue,.  His brother,

SIR JOHN DE GYSE, Kt, Baneret, for THE KING in the Scottish wars 1300-24, and was Knighted on the same occasion as EDWARD, PRINCE OF WALES, 22 May 1306.  He was Knight of the Shire for co. Buckingham 1306, and for co. Gloucester 1324.  He married 1315, Isabella, heiress of the Manor of Turnslede.  His eldest son,

SIR JOHN GYZ, was slain in a private quarrel with Sir John de Lisle and Ralph de Doncaster 1355.  Of his three sons, the eldest,

SIR THOMAS GYZ  (Gayz or Keys) fought as an esquire in John of Gaunt’s contingent in the BLACK PRINCE’S ARMY in Castile, 1365, and Aquitaine 1367, and again in John of Gaunt’s Army in Picardy 1369.  He was sent to Germany to buy horses for the English Army before the invasion of France, 1373 and was Knighted during this campaign and made Constable of  the Chateau d’Oye, in Picardy.  He died in 1380, leaving a son,

RICHARD KEYS (Gyz or Gayz in the Lancastrian records and Keys or Kays in the Exchequer Rolls), fought in the campaign in France 1373, and then entered into service of the Duchy of Lancaster in co. Derby.  Following this appointment, he became Esquire to Richard II; he ‘took up’ the ships for the expedition to Ireland, and was in charge of the western ports for this purpose.  He as appointed by patent (1393) Sergeant-at-Arms to THE KING, and continued as such under HENRY IV and HENRY V, and in the reign of the latter was placed in charge of all the English ports from Hull to Dartmouth for dealing with captured foreign ships.  His son,

HENRY KEYS, was Clerk and eventually Keeper of the Hanaper (one of two divisions of the Royal Exchequer) to HENRY IV, HENRY V, and HENRY VI (1410 to 1437).  He had two sons, Roger and Thomas.

ROGER KEYES served first in the Hanaper, was Notary Public of Exeter, and, entering holy orders, became Canon of Exeter in 1436.  He was summoned by the Archbishop-Chancellor Chichele (Shichele) to build All Souls College, Oxford (completed 1443), and was appointed second Warden of the College. Returning to Exeter in 1445 to prosecute a lawsuit, he was entrusted (during the course of the suit) with the completion of Eton College for HENRY VI.  While at Windsor he was Chaplain to THE KING and Prebendary of St. Paul’s.  For his services he was granted (1449) a patent of arms and nobility, which is unique, in that it conveyed nobility, without a summons to Parliament, to a clerk in Holy Orders.  In order to ‘continue our Grace’ to the family, the patent was extended to Roger Keyes’s brother Thomas and his descendants.  After leaving Eton, Roger Keyes returned to Exeter and was made Archdeacon of Barnstaple in addition to receiving other preferments.  He also acted in matters of probate, etc. for Archbishop Bourchier.  When EDWARD IV regained his throne in 1470, the Archdeacon was charged with treason on four counts for his adherence to the House of Lancaster, but succeeded in obtaining a pardon in 1472.  He died 1477 and is buried in Exeter Cathedral.  His brother,

THOMAS KEYES, served the Exchequer as Commissioner Of Revenue and Customs in Devonshire for several years from 1449.  His son,

THOMAS KEYES, inherited property in Greenwich from his uncle Roger and added to it by purchase.  He was in the suite of Sir John Bourchier, Lord Berners, when Chancellor of the Exchequer, Ambassador to the Emperor Charles V in Spain, and when Deputy of Calais at the time of the Field of the Cloth of Gold.  His only son,

RICHARD KEYES, served first in Calais, then as Yeoman to Catherine of Aragon (1523), and as Sergeant-at-Arms to HENRY VIII (1528).  He was appointed commissioner for the building of Sandgate Castle (1539), and Captain of Sandgate Castle (1541).  Richard Keyes purchased land at Alkham Malmaines in the Hundred of Folkestone, and held the Abbey of St. Radegund from the Crown in fee simple.  He married 1stly, Agnes, sister of Sir William Saunder, Treasurer of Calais, and afterwards Cofferer to QUEEN MARY and 2ndly, Myldrede, daughter Of Sir John Scott,, of Scott’s Hall, and niece to Sir William Scott, Ambassador to Scotland and Comptroller of THE KING’S Household.  His eldest son, by his 1st wife,

THOMAS KEYES, born 1523 was taken into the service of HENRY VIII as Sergeant Porter, and held this appointment under the three succeeding sovereigns, although he was entrusted with many other duties.  He was three times Captain of Sandgate Castle when the Kentish coast was threatened.  He was summoned to Parliament for Hythe as Baron of the Cinque Ports during the rebellion of Wyatt, and took some share in suppressing the rising.  When Calais was threatened, he was sent by QUEEN MARY to command the Kentish levies for the relief of that place.  On QUEEN ELIZABETH’s accession, he was appointed commissioner for settling the disturbances that had arisen in the Churches at Dover.  He also served for a time as Deputy Master of the Horse to QUEEN ELIZABETH.  In 1565, being then a widower with at least three children, he secretly espoused Lady Mary Grey, 3rd daughter of Henry Grey, Duke of Suffolk, by Frances, daughter and co-heiress of Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk by Mary, Dowager Queen of France, and sister to KING HENRY VIII.  For this offence, Lady Mary Keyes was kept in custody, and Thomas Keyes was imprisioned in the Fleet for about three years, after which he was allowed to live on his property at Greenwich, under open arrest, in order to prosecute a lawsuit.  He was never allowed to see his wife again after this arrest.  In 1569, on the threat of a coalition between Spain and France against England, he was again appointed Captain of Sandgate Castle.  He died in 1571, when once more a candidate for Parliament as a Baron of the Cinque Ports.  His eldest son,

THOMAS KEYES, served in the war in Ireland from 1578, first as Assistant to the ‘Trenchmaster,’ Sir Richard Hansard.  Hansard was sent back to England to raise a Company, which he took to Ireland in 1601, and was joined by Thomas Keyes and his son John.  Hansard was eventually appointed Governor of the Liffer, and consolidated his hold on the fords across the Foyle River by building a fort at Lifford.  Thomas Keyes, who was then Hansard’s Captain, was granted a plot of land (‘one sesiagh’) in the vicinity on which to build a house.  His son John, and Roger Tasker, who were Hansard’s Lieuts., were given similar plots to build fortified houses to guard another ford at Ballindrait.  Hansard’s officers did not participate in the distribution of escheated lands on the ‘Plantation’ of Ulster; but Thomas Keyes and Roger Tasker took up and developed land included in Clonleigh, originally granted to the Bishop of Derry.  Thomas Keyes’s property was Clonfade (afterwards Glenfade) and Roger Takser’s was Cavanacor.  Thomas Keyes settled in Derry, were he became Sheriff in 1623, and made over Clonfade to his son,

JOHN KEYES, who settled there, and had a son,

JOHN KEYES, married Barbara, daughter and heiress of Roger Tasker, to whom her father assigned Cavanacor, which estate henceforth became their principal residence.  Their eldest son,

JOHN KEYES, of Cavanacor, married Margaret, daughter of John Lowry of Ahenis, by this second wife Jane, daughter of William Hamilton, of Ballyfatton, and left with other issue, John, who died without issue and William, whose daughter Deborah married Nathaniel Keyes, of Clonfade.

GEORGE KEYES, of Clonfade (younger brother of John, of Cavanacor), will proved 1736, married and had issue,

NATHANIEL KEYES, of Clonfade, married 1stly Deborah, daughter of Wiliam Keyes, of Edenmore (died 1755), son of the aforesaid John Keyes and Margaret Lowry, and by her had issue,

GEORGE KEYES, who succeeded to Cavanacor on the death of his maternal uncle,

WILLIAM KEYES, married and had issue, two sons, Nathaniel who died without issue; and William, whose daughter and eventual heiress, Mary married Lt-Col.  Benjamin Geale Humfrey, and was ancestor of the HUMFREYS of Cavanacor (see Burke’s Landed Gentry)

He married 2ndly Margaret Babington, and had, with other issue,

THOMAS KEYES, of Longvale, co. Donegal married Marianne Babington (died 22 April 1834) and died 30 Nov 1833, leaving, with other issue,

THOMAS KEYES, Assistant Surgeon  Madras Army, married Mary Anne, daughter of William Patton, of Croghan, co Donegal, and died 25 March 1825 leaving issue,

1.                  Thomas Huddleston, Lt-Col Madras Army married Jane, daughter of Robert Merry, and had two sons who died without issue.

2.                  Charles Patton (Sir), of who presently

3.                  William, died unmarrried

The 2nd son,

GEN, SIR CHARLES PATTON KEYES, of Croghan, co Donegal, G.C.B., J.P. Kent, entered 30th Mardras N.I. 1843, became Capt. 1858, Brevet Col. 1869, Major Gen. 1881, and Gen. 1889, born 25 Nov 1822 married 12 Jan 1870, Katherine Jessie (died 10 May, 1916), daughter of James Norman, and sister of Field Marshall Sir Henry Norman, G.C.B., G.C.M.G., C.I.E. and had issue, with a son, Norman (died young),

1.                  ROGER JOHN BROWNLOW, created a Baronet 1919, and a Peer 1943.

2.                  Charles Valentine, Capt. Q.O. Corps of Guides, born 14 Feb 1876; killed in West Africa, 1901.

3.                  Terence Humphrey (Sir) K.C.I.E., C.S.I., C.M.G., Brig. Gen. I.A., joined I.A. 1897, hon. Brig. Gen. 1932, served with Tirah Expedition. 1897-98 (wounded, despatches, medal and two clasps), entered political dept. Govt of India 1903, Vice Consul Seistan 1904-06, Consul Turbat-i-Haidari 1906-08, served in Baluchistan 1908-13, in Mesopotamia, Persian Gulf and South Persia 1914-17 (despatched, C.I.E.), with Russian Army in Rumania and Bukovina 1917 (despatches, brevet Lt.Col.), orders of Crown of Rumania, St. Vladimir, St. Anne and St. Stanislas of Russia, served in South Russia and Army of the Black Sea 1918-1920 as G.S.O. (1), and Brig.Gen. Gen. Staff (despatches, C.M.G.), Acting High Commissioner., Political Agent in Baluchistan 1921-28, Envoy at Court of Nepal 1928, Resident in Gwalior 1928-29, Agent to Gov. Gen. in States of Western India 1929, and Resident at Hyderabad 1930-33, Gold Staff Officer at Coronation 1937, born 28 May 1877, married 15 April 1909, Edith Beatrice (Kaisar-i-Hind gold medal) (died 28 Feb 1960), daughter of Lt.-Gen. Charles Alexander McMahon, F.R.S. formerly Commissioner of Lahore, and died 25 Feb. 1939, leaving issue,

1.                  Roger McMahon, late Capt. Royal Sussex Regt., and Intelligence Corps, served in World War II (wounded), born 6 Feb. 1910, educated Charterhouse, and Worcester College Oxford (B.A.), died unmarried 15 March 1952,

2.                  Patrick Terence, served in World War II in Queen’s Royal Regt., and in Intelligence Corps (20, Westbury Road, New Malden, Surrey), born 8 Feb 1918, educated Stowe, and King’s College London married 12 Sept. 1953, Frances William, only child of late Major Arthur Victor Langton, R.A. of 45, Abingdon Court,, W.8 and has issue,

(1)   Andrew Charles Langton, born 8 Aug 1954

(2)   Nicholas Patrick Langton, born 3 Sept 1955

(1)   Mary Elizabeth Langton, born 19 Sept 1957

(2)   Sarah-Anne Victoria Langton, born 10 March, 1962

3.                  Michael Patton, served in World War II as Capt. The Frontier Force Regt., I.A., A.D.C. to Gov of N.W. Frontier Province, India 1946, Dir. Jardine, Matheson and Co. (Japan) Ltd. (PO Box 282 Central, Tokyo 100-91, Japan; Landsowne Club), born 2 Oct 1921, educated Sedbergh, marrried 4 Nov 1957, Germaine Madeleine, youngest daughter of late Francois Lespinasse, of Nevers, France, and has issue,

Terence Francois, born 21 Dec 1959

1.      Rosemary served in World War II as 2nd Officer W.R.N.S., born 15 Sept 1911, married 10 Jan 1942, Major-Gen. Halford David Fellowes, C.B., D.S.O., R.M. (Pastures, Rolvenden, Kent), elder son of Major Halford Le Mesurier Fellowes, I.A. (see Burke’s Landed Gentry, FELLOWES-GORDON of Knockespoch).

2.      Lavender Phyllis, served in World War II as 2nd Officer W.R.N.S., born 15 May 1914 married 2 March 1948, Anthony George Wills Paul, R.A.F.O. (Cumberland Hotel, Weymouth, Dorset), eldest son of late  Major W.G. Paul, of The Victoria Hotel, Weymouth, and has issue,

(1)   Michael Anthony Keyes, born 30 Dec 1948

(2)   David McMahon, born 30 Dec 1951

(1)   Amanda Carolyn, born 23 Sept 1954

4.                  Adrian St. Vincent, C.B.E. (1919), D.S.O. (1915), Cmdr. R.N. Cmdr. and Acting Capt. on Staff of C.-in-C. Plymouth 1918, served in Dardanelles 1915-16, born 19 Dec 1882, married 25 Sept 1916, Eleanor (who married 2ndly, 15 Feb 1936, Major Carfrae Hamilton Delmege, late 21st Lancers, of Manor House, Cricklade, Wilts, and died 28 Jan 1945), daughter of late Lt-Col Walter Campbell, of The Ivy House, Hampton Court, and died 6 Oct 1925 leaving issue,

Ralph Adrian, served in World War II in R.N. (c/o Mrs. Hamilton Delmege, 4 Whitehall Court, S.W.1), born 27 Aug 1924.

1.      Dorothea Agnes (Lady Gough), married 29 June 1907, Brig. Gen. John Edmund Gough, V.C., C.B., C.M.G. (who was granted the honour of a K.C.B. (posthumously) for his most distinguished services in the field, 20 April 1915), and died 2 April 1962, leaving issue.  He died 22 Feb 1915, of wounds received in action.

2.      Katherine Mary, married 3 Oct 1900, Capt Charles John Wintour, R.N. and died 3 July 1956, having had issue.  He was killed in the Battle of Jutland, 31 May 1916.

3.      Phyllis Marion, died unmarried 1 May 1968

4.      Madeline Helen, died unmarried 25 April 1964, aged 78.

Sir Charles saw much service on the Indian Frontier and commanded 1st Punjab Inf., Queen’s Own Corps of Guides, Punjab F.F., and Secunderabad Division; he died 5 Feb 1896.

The House of Guise, a branch of the ducal family of Lorraine, played an important part in the religious troubles of France during the seventeenth century. By reason of descent from Charlemagne, it laid claim for a brief period to the throne of France. The Guises upheld firmly Catholic interests not only in France, but also in Scotland, where Marie de Lorraine and her daughter, Mary Stuart, were allied to them. Their religious zeal, however, was often tarnished by their own violence, and by that of their partisans; it also covered certain plans for political reform that were dangerous to monarchical centralization. Finally, the relations which existed for thirty-five years between Spain and the House of Guise roused the suspicion of French patriotism. In their favour it must be said that the Huegonots were also guilty of many acts of violence, and appealed to England, as the Guises did to Spain, and that the Calvinistic nobility was even more dangerous to French unity than the Catholic. We shall here consider only those members of this famous family who are especially interesting from the viewpoint of religious history.

Claude de Lorraine

First Duke of Guise, born at the Château de Condé, 20 Oct., 1496; d. at Joinville, 12 April, 1550, the son of René II, Duke of Lorraine, and his second wife, Philippa of Guelders. Claude de Guise wished to possess the Duchy of Lorraine, to the detriment of his elder brother Antoine, whom he declared illegitimate, inasmuch as he was born during the lifetime of Marguerite d’Harcourt, the (divorced) first wife of René II, but he was obliged to be content with the Countships of Guise and Aumale, the Barony of Joinville, and the Seigniories of Mayenne and Elbeuf, which his father possessed in France. He soon made his appearance at the French court, where he at once gave evidence of his ability to please. He followed Francis I to Italy, and at the battle of Marignano (1515) received twenty-two wounds. He took a courageous part in the campaigns against Charles V, for which Francis I rewarded him by making him master of the hounds and first chamberlain, and by the erection of the countship of Guise to a ducal peerage, an honour hitherto reserved for princes of the blood. Claude de Guise also merited the gratitude of the Catholic party for the struggle which he maintained in 1525 against the bands of Anabaptists attempted to invade Lorraine, whom he exterminated at Lupstein near Saverne (Zabern), 16 May, 1525. His campaign in Luxembourg (1542), the services which he rendered in 1543 by his defence of Landrecies, and his success in quieting the Parisians, alarmed by the approach of the imperial forces, justified the favour of the king, who finally confided to him the government of Burgundy; the Duke’s ambition, however, his large fortune, and powerful relatives gave offense to Francis I. It was said that the latter counseled Henry II never to admit the Guises to a share in government, and a popular quatrain current in Paris ran:—

François premier prédit ce point
Que ceux de la maison de Guise
Mettraient ses enfants en purpoint
Et son pauvre peuple en chemise.

In 1513 Claude de Guise married Antoinette de Bourbon (1493-1583), noted for the simplicity of her life, her renunciation of all rich materials in dress, and her great charity toward hospitals, the poor, and orphans. By her he had eight sons and four daughters. If the memoirs of François de Guise, Claude’s son, are to be credited, his father died of poison.

Jean de Lorraine

Brother of the above, b. 1498; d. 18 May, 1550. He became a cardinal at twenty, the first cardinal of Lorraine. His activity was exercised chiefly in France, where he assisted Claude de Guise to strengthen the ascendancy of his family. Having been sent in 1536 as the ambassador of Francis I to Charles V to reconcile their differences, he warned the king on his return of the unmistakably warlike intentions of the emperor. Even before Claude de Guise had offended the king, the cardinal was regarded with suspicion. He fell into disgrace with Francis I in 1542, but still retained great influence owing to the bounties which he was able to make with his immense revenues, for he had acquired the bishoprics of Metz, Toul, Verdun, Thérouanne, Luçon, and Valence, the Archbishoprics of Lyon, Reims, and Narbonne, and a number of abbeys. “Thou art either Christ or the Cardinal of Lorraine“, exclaimed a Roman beggar on whom he had bestowed large alms.

François de Lorraine

Second Duke of Guise, b. at the Château de Bar, 17 Feb., 1519, of Claude de Guise and Antoinette de Bourbon; d. 24 Feb., 1563. He was the warrior of the family, el gran capitan de Guysa, as the Spanish called him. A wound which he received at the siege of Boulogne (1545), won for him the surname Balafré (the Scarred). His defense of Metz against Charles V (1552) crowned his reputation. After a siege of two months the emperor was obliged to retire with a loss of 30,000 men. François de Lorraine fought valiantly at the battle of Renty (1554). The Truce of Vaucelles, signed in 1556 for a period of six years, followed by the abdication of Charles V, seemed about to end his military career. <!–



The dukes of Guise, however, as descendants of the House of Anjou, had certain pretensions to the Kingdom of Naples, and it was doubtless with the secret intention of defending these claims that François de Lorraine furthered an alliance between Henry II and Pope Paul IV which was menaced by Philip II. In consequence of this alliance François de Guise entered Milanese territory (Jan., 1557), marched thence through Italy, and although neither the petty princes nor the pope gave him the assistance he expected, he took the little Neapolitan town of Campli (17 April, 1557), and on 24 April laid siege to Civitella. At the end of twenty-two days, being threatened at the same time by epidemic and the Duke of Alva, he fell back upon Rome, where he reorganized his army, and was preparing to return southward, when Henry II, after the victory of the Spaniards over the Constable de Montmorency at Saint-Quentin (23 Aug., 1557), summoned him to “restore France“.

David Alan Gest (born May 11, 1953) is an American concert promoter and media personality, perhaps best known for his turbulent marriage to Liza Minnelli, friendship with The Jackson 5 and appearance on the 2006 series of the British reality television show I’m a Celebrity… Get Me Out Of Here!.

And for Jenn:

We will look more in comments.

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