More on Hawaii. The first two posts are here;
Niʻihau or Niihau ( /ˈniːhaʊ/; Hawaiian: [ˈniʔiˈhɔu]) is the seventh largest of the inhabited Hawaiian Islands in the U.S. state of Hawaiʻi, having an area of 69.5 square miles (180 km2). Niʻihau lies 17.5 miles (15.2 nmi; 28.2 km) southwest of Kauaʻi across the Kaulakahi Channel. Several intermittent playa lakes provide wetland habitats for the Hawaiian Coot, the Black-winged Stilt, and the Hawaiian Duck. The island is designated as critical habitat for Brighamia insignis, an endemic and endangered species of Hawaiian lobelioid. The United States Census Bureau defines Niʻihau and the neighboring island and State Seabird Sanctuary of Lehua as Census Tract 410 of Kauai County, Hawaii. Its 2000 census population was 160; As of June 2009, the population was 130.
Elizabeth Sinclair purchased Niʻihau in 1864 from the Kingdom of Hawaii and private ownership passed on to her descendants, the Robinson family. During World War II, the island was the site of the Niʻihau Incident: A Japanese navy fighter pilot crashed on the island and terrorized its residents for a week after the attack on Pearl Harbor. The people of Niʻihau are known for their gemlike lei pūpū (shell lei) craftsmanship, and speak Hawaiʻian as a primary language. The island is generally off-limits to all but relatives of the island’s owners, U.S. Navy personnel, government officials and invited guests, giving it the nickname “The Forbidden Isle”. Beginning in 1987, a limited number of supervised activity tours and hunting safaris have opened to tourists. The island is currently managed by Bruce and Keith Robinson.
Elizabeth McHutchison Sinclair (26 April 1800 – 16 October 1892) was a Scottish homemaker, farmer and plantation owner in New Zealand and Hawaii, best known as the matriarch of the Sinclair family that bought the Hawaiian island of Niʻihau in 1864. Born in Glasgow, Scotland, she married Francis Sinclair, a ship’s captain. With six children in tow, the family moved to New Zealand. Her husband and eldest son (and much of the family’s property) were later lost at sea.
After years of farming, mainly at Pigeon Bay on the Banks Peninsula in the Canterbury Region of the South Island, she decided to relocate to Canada. Unhappy with the conditions she found on Vancouver Island, she considered California but instead went to Hawaii where she bought the Hawaiian island of Niʻihau for $10,000. She later bought additional lands at Hanapepe and Makaweli on the island of Kauaʻi. Her descendants, the Robinson family, continue to own and maintain the island of Ni’ihau.
Aubrey Robinson (1853–1936) was an owner of a sugarcane plantation and a ranch consisting of an entire island in the Hawaiian Islands.
2 Family and legacy
3 See also
 LifeAubrey Robinson was born in Canterbury, New Zealand on October 17, 1853. His father was Charles Barrington Robinson and mother was Helen Sinclair. His grandmother, Elizabeth McHutchison (1800–1892), also spelled McHutcheson, was born in Glasgow, Scotland, married Francis Sinclair in 1824 and moved to New Zealand in 1840 with their six children. In 1846 her husband and eldest son died at sea. With her remaining children and grandchildren, she left New Zealand heading for Canada. When they arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in September 1863, King Kamehameha IV suggested they stay and purchase some land. Although the King soon died, the family purchased the entire island of Niʻihau and the Makaweli estate on the island of Kauaʻi from King Kamehameha V for US$10,000 on January 23, 1864.
Robinson was educated at home and attended the Boston University School of Law and was admitted to the bar in eastern courts. He spent a number of years traveling in Europe and Asia, and, on his return to Hawaii, managed the family estates after the death of his uncle Francis Sinclair with his cousin (also brother-in-law), Francis Gay, under the firm name of Gay & Robinson. Other partners were Elizabeth Sinclair, Jane Sinclair Gay and Helen Sinclair Robinson. Their island of Niʻihau was used exclusively by Gay & Robinson for grazing cattle, as was much of their Makaweli estate. Robinson raised pure-bred sheep and cattle, and imported strains of Merino sheep and shorthorn cattle from the United States, Australia and New Zealand.
Robinson developed the Makaweli sugar plantation on Kauaʻi, on which the Hawaiian Sugar Company leased about 6,000 acres (24 km2). Besides this land the firm of Gay & Robinson had a sugar plantation of more than 1,000 acres (4.0 km2) on the same estate. In 1884, Robinson imported purebred Arabian horses. Robinson took an active interest in church and missionary work both in Hawaii and abroad.
 Family and legacy
Aubrey Robinson in 1901His aunt Anne Sinclair married Kauaʻi sugar planter Valdemar Knudsen (1819–1898) in 1867. Robinson married his cousin Alice Gay in 1885, daughter of Captain Thomas Gay and Jane (Sinclair) Gay. They had four sons: Sinclair Robinson (born May 1, 1886), Aylmer Francis Robinson (May 6, 1888 – 1968), Selwyn Aubrey Robinson (born August 14, 1892), and Lester Beauclerk Robinson (1901–October 1969) and one daughter, Eleanor. Robinson died on his estate in 1936, and the estate passed to his son Aylmer and then Lester. His descendants have kept the tradition of treating Niʻihau as private, earning it the name “Forbidden Island”. Niʻihau was owned by Lester’s wife Helen Matthew Robinson (1910–2002) and then as of 2008[update], her sons Bruce and Keith Robinson.
Francis W. Sinclair
(1797-1846) Elizabeth McHutchison
Charles B. Robinson Helen Sinclair Jane Sinclair
(d. 1916) Thomas Gay
(d. 1865) Anne Sinclair
(1839-1922) Valdemar Knudsen
(1853–1936) Alice Gay Francis Gay Eric Alfred Knudsen
(1888–1967) Lester Beauclerk Robinson
(1901–1969) Helen Matthew
(b. 1941) Bruce Robinson
10th Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund
1 November 2007 – 18 May 2011
Deputy John Lipsky
Preceded by Rodrigo Rato
Succeeded by Christine Lagarde
Minister of Finance of France
4 June 1997 – 2 November 1999
Prime Minister Lionel Jospin
Preceded by Jean Arthuis
Succeeded by Christian Sautter
Born Dominique Gaston André Strauss-Kahn
(1949-04-25) 25 April 1949 (age 63)
Political party Socialist Party (1970s–present)
Spouse(s) Brigitte Guillemette
(m. 1984–1989, divorced)
(m. 1991–, living separately since 2012)
Alma mater HEC Paris
Institut d’Études Politiques de Paris
Paris West University Nanterre La Défense
Mary Robinson – Stanford Presidential Lectures – Stanford …
prelectur.stanford.edu/lecturers/robinson/ Mary Robinson – Stanford Presidential Lectures – Stanford …
Preamble to the UN Declaration of Human Rights (United Nations 1948). Dr. Mary Therese Winifred Robinson (née Bourke) is a lawyer, politician, professor, …
Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:
You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. ( Log Out / Change )
You are commenting using your Twitter account. ( Log Out / Change )
You are commenting using your Facebook account. ( Log Out / Change )
You are commenting using your Google+ account. ( Log Out / Change )
Connecting to %s
Notify me of new comments via email.
Notify me of new posts via email.